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Open AccessArticle

Efficient Chemo-Enzymatic Flow Synthesis of High Value Amides and Esters

1
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences (DISFARM), University of Milan, via Mangiagalli 25, 20133 Milan, Italy
2
School of Chemistry, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD, UK
3
Department of Food, Environmental and Nutritional Sciences (DeFENS), University of Milan, via Celoria 2, 20133 Milan, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Catalysts 2020, 10(8), 939; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal10080939
Received: 18 July 2020 / Revised: 11 August 2020 / Accepted: 14 August 2020 / Published: 16 August 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Continuous-Flow Catalysis)
A flow-based chemo-enzymatic synthesis of selected APIs (i.e., butacaine, procaine and procainamide) has been developed. A bioreactor made of MsAcT, a versatile acyltransferase from Mycobacterium smegmatis, immobilised on glyoxyl–garose, was exploited to efficiently prepare amide and ester intermediates in gram scale. Immobilised MsAcT was employed in pure organic solvent, demonstrating high stability and reusability. In-line purification of the key intermediates using polymer-bound sulphonyl chloride was added after the bioreactor, enhancing the automation of the process. A final hydrogenation step using the H-Cube reactor was further carried out to obtain the selected APIs in excellent yields (>99%), making the process fast, safe and easily handled. View Full-Text
Keywords: flow chemistry; biocatalysis; immobilisation; active pharmaceutical ingredients; flow hydrogenation flow chemistry; biocatalysis; immobilisation; active pharmaceutical ingredients; flow hydrogenation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Annunziata, F.; Letizia Contente, M.; Betti, D.; Pinna, C.; Molinari, F.; Tamborini, L.; Pinto, A. Efficient Chemo-Enzymatic Flow Synthesis of High Value Amides and Esters. Catalysts 2020, 10, 939. https://doi.org/10.3390/catal10080939

AMA Style

Annunziata F, Letizia Contente M, Betti D, Pinna C, Molinari F, Tamborini L, Pinto A. Efficient Chemo-Enzymatic Flow Synthesis of High Value Amides and Esters. Catalysts. 2020; 10(8):939. https://doi.org/10.3390/catal10080939

Chicago/Turabian Style

Annunziata, Francesca; Letizia Contente, Martina; Betti, Daniele; Pinna, Cecilia; Molinari, Francesco; Tamborini, Lucia; Pinto, Andrea. 2020. "Efficient Chemo-Enzymatic Flow Synthesis of High Value Amides and Esters" Catalysts 10, no. 8: 939. https://doi.org/10.3390/catal10080939

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