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Article

A Three-Step Process for the Bioconversion of Whey Permeate into a Glucose-Free D-Tagatose Syrup

1
Instituto de Catálisis y Petroleoquímica, CSIC, 28049 Madrid, Spain
2
Laboratory of Microbial Biotechnology and Engineering Enzymes (LMBEE), Centre of Biotechnology of Sfax (CBS), University of Sfax, Sfax 3018, Tunisia
3
Centro de Biología Molecular Severo Ochoa, UAM-CSIC, 28049 Madrid, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Catalysts 2020, 10(6), 647; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal10060647
Received: 15 May 2020 / Revised: 4 June 2020 / Accepted: 8 June 2020 / Published: 9 June 2020
We have developed a sustainable three-stage process for the revaluation of cheese whey permeate into D-tagatose, a rare sugar with functional properties used as sweetener. The experimental conditions (pH, temperature, cofactors, etc.) for each step were independently optimized. In the first step, concentrated whey containing 180–200 g/L of lactose was fully hydrolyzed by β-galactosidase from Bifidobacterium bifidum (Saphera®) in 3 h at 45 °C. Secondly, glucose was selectively removed by treatment with Pichia pastoris cells for 3 h at 30 °C. The best results were obtained with 350 mg of cells (previously grown for 16 h) per mL of solution. Finally, L-arabinose isomerase US100 from Bacillus stearothermophilus was employed to isomerize D-galactose into D-tagatose at pH 7.5 and 65 °C, in presence of 0.5 mM MnSO4. After 7 h, the concentration of D-tagatose was approximately 30 g/L (33.3% yield, referred to the initial D-galactose present in whey). The proposed integrated process takes place under mild conditions (neutral pH, moderate temperatures) in a short time (13 h), yielding a glucose-free syrup containing D-tagatose and galactose in a ratio 1:2 (w/w). View Full-Text
Keywords: biocatalysis; glycosidases; isomerases; Pichia pastoris; sweeteners; rare sugars; cheese whey; sustainable chemistry biocatalysis; glycosidases; isomerases; Pichia pastoris; sweeteners; rare sugars; cheese whey; sustainable chemistry
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MDPI and ACS Style

Cervantes, F.V.; Neifar, S.; Merdzo, Z.; Viña-Gonzalez, J.; Fernandez-Arrojo, L.; Ballesteros, A.O.; Fernandez-Lobato, M.; Bejar, S.; Plou, F.J. A Three-Step Process for the Bioconversion of Whey Permeate into a Glucose-Free D-Tagatose Syrup. Catalysts 2020, 10, 647. https://doi.org/10.3390/catal10060647

AMA Style

Cervantes FV, Neifar S, Merdzo Z, Viña-Gonzalez J, Fernandez-Arrojo L, Ballesteros AO, Fernandez-Lobato M, Bejar S, Plou FJ. A Three-Step Process for the Bioconversion of Whey Permeate into a Glucose-Free D-Tagatose Syrup. Catalysts. 2020; 10(6):647. https://doi.org/10.3390/catal10060647

Chicago/Turabian Style

Cervantes, Fadia V., Sawssan Neifar, Zoran Merdzo, Javier Viña-Gonzalez, Lucia Fernandez-Arrojo, Antonio O. Ballesteros, Maria Fernandez-Lobato, Samir Bejar, and Francisco J. Plou. 2020. "A Three-Step Process for the Bioconversion of Whey Permeate into a Glucose-Free D-Tagatose Syrup" Catalysts 10, no. 6: 647. https://doi.org/10.3390/catal10060647

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