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Article

Microwave-Assisted Degradation of Biomass with the Use of Acid Catalysis

Department of Biotechnology, Kazimierz Wielki University, ul. K. J. Poniatowskiego 12, 85–671 Bydgoszcz, Poland
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Catalysts 2020, 10(6), 641; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal10060641
Received: 28 April 2020 / Revised: 3 June 2020 / Accepted: 5 June 2020 / Published: 8 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Catalysis in Biomass Valorization)
The aim of the study was to assess the effectiveness of microwave pretreatment combined with acid catalysis in the decomposition of various types of biomass (pine and beech chips and hemp stems). It was clearly demonstrated that sulfuric acid was a catalyst enabling the most effective decomposition of the tested plant biomass, guaranteeing the highest concentrations of simple sugars released. Acid catalysis with 1% v/v sulfuric acid combined with microwave radiation provided high glucose concentrations of 89.8 ± 3.4, 170.4 ± 2.4 and 164.6 ± 4.6 mg/g for pine chips, beech chips and hemp stems, respectively. In turn, the use of nitric acid promoted the degradation of hemicellulose, which resulted in high concentrations of galactose and xylose, i.e., 147.6 ± 0.6, 163.6 ± 0.4 and 134.9 ± 0.8 mg/g of pine chips, beech chips and hemp stems, respectively, while glucose levels remained relatively low. It was also demonstrated that the undesirable dehydration of sugars such as glucose and xylose is more pronounced in sulfuric acid than nitric acid processes. The use of H2SO4 and increased pressure generated 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) and furfural at a concentration of ca. 12 and 6 mg/g, 10 and 45 mg/g and 14 and 30 mg/g, of pine chips, beech chips and hemp shoots, respectively. Our studies confirmed the usefulness of the combined use of microwaves and acid catalysis in the degradation of softwood, hardwood and non-wood plant biomass. It should be emphasized that obtaining high concentrations of released simple sugars (as potential substrates in biosynthesis), while maintaining low levels of toxic by-products (inhibitors), requires precise selection of process parameters such as pressure, exposition time and type of acid catalyst. View Full-Text
Keywords: acid catalysis; microwave-assisted degradation; biomass acid catalysis; microwave-assisted degradation; biomass
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kłosowski, G.; Mikulski, D.; Lewandowska, N. Microwave-Assisted Degradation of Biomass with the Use of Acid Catalysis. Catalysts 2020, 10, 641. https://doi.org/10.3390/catal10060641

AMA Style

Kłosowski G, Mikulski D, Lewandowska N. Microwave-Assisted Degradation of Biomass with the Use of Acid Catalysis. Catalysts. 2020; 10(6):641. https://doi.org/10.3390/catal10060641

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kłosowski, Grzegorz, Dawid Mikulski, and Natalia Lewandowska. 2020. "Microwave-Assisted Degradation of Biomass with the Use of Acid Catalysis" Catalysts 10, no. 6: 641. https://doi.org/10.3390/catal10060641

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