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Open AccessArticle

Biodiesel Production from Melia azedarach and Ricinus communis Oil by Transesterification Process

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Department of Biosciences, COMSATS University Islamabad, Sahiwal Campus, Sahiwal 57000, Pakistan
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Industrial Engineering Department, The University of Jordan, Amman 11942, Jordan
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Department of Biochemistry, University Institute of Biochemistry & Biotechnology, PMAS Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi, Punjab 46000, Pakistan
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Department of Mathematics, COMSATS University Islamabad, Sahiwal Campus, Sahiwal 57000, Pakistan
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Department for Management of Science and Technology Development, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City 758307, Vietnam
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Faculty of Applied Sciences, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City 758307, Vietnam
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Catalysts 2020, 10(4), 427; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal10040427
Received: 25 February 2020 / Revised: 4 April 2020 / Accepted: 11 April 2020 / Published: 14 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Catalytic Conversion of Carbohydrates)
Biodiesel is a renewable fuel usually produced from vegetable oils and animal fats. This study investigates the extraction of oil and its conversion into biodiesel by base-catalyzed transesterification. Firstly, the effect of various solvents (methanol, n-hexane, chloroform, di-ethyl ether) on extraction of oil from non-edible crops, such as R. communis and M. azedarach, were examined. It was observed that a higher concentration of oil was obtained from R. communis (43.6%) as compared to M. azedarach (35.6%) by using methanol and n-hexane, respectively. The extracted oils were subjected to NaOH (1%) catalyzed transesterification by analyzing the effect of oil/methanol molar ratio (1:4, 1:6, 1:8 and 1:10) and varying temperature (20, 40, 60 and 80 °C) for 2.5 h of reaction time. M. azedarach yielded 88% and R. communis yielded 93% biodiesel in 1:6 and 1:8 molar concentrations at ambient temperature whereas, 60 °C was selected as an optimum temperature, giving 90% (M. azedarach) and 94% (R. communis) biodiesel. The extracted oil and biodiesel were characterized for various parameters and most of the properties fulfilled the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standard biodiesel. The further characterization of fatty acids was done by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometer (GC/MS) and oleic acid was found to be dominant in M. azedarach (61.5%) and R. communis contained ricinoleic acid (75.53%). Furthermore, the functional groups were analyzed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. The results suggested that both of the oils are easily available and can be used for commercial biodiesel production at a cost-effective scale. View Full-Text
Keywords: Melia azedarach; Ricinus communis; transesterification; fatty acid; biodiesel Melia azedarach; Ricinus communis; transesterification; fatty acid; biodiesel
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Awais, M.; Musmar, S.A.; Kabir, F.; Batool, I.; Rasheed, M.A.; Jamil, F.; Khan, S.U.; Tlili, I. Biodiesel Production from Melia azedarach and Ricinus communis Oil by Transesterification Process. Catalysts 2020, 10, 427.

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