Next Article in Journal
Photocatalytic BiOX Mortars under Visible Light Irradiation: Compatibility, NOx Efficiency and Nitrate Selectivity
Previous Article in Journal
Theoretical Study on Electronic Structural Properties of Catalytically Reactive Metalloporphyrin Intermediates
Open AccessArticle

Supermagnetic Nano-Bifunctional Catalyst from Rice Husk: Synthesis, Characterization and Application for Conversion of Used Cooking Oil to Biodiesel

1
Institute of Advanced Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400 UPM, Selangor, Malaysia
2
Chancellery Office, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Kota Kinabalu 88400, Sabah, Malaysia
3
Catalysis Science and Technology Research Centre, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400 UPM, Selangor, Malaysia
4
School of Chemistry and Environment, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Shah Alam 40450, Selangor, Malaysia
5
Centre of Nanomaterial Research, Institute of Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Shah Alam 40450, Selangor, Malaysia
6
Chemistry Department, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 1145, Saudi Arabia
7
Laboratoire de Recherche LR18ES08, Chemistry Department, Science College, Tunis El Manar University, Tunis 2092, Tunisia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Catalysts 2020, 10(2), 225; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal10020225
Received: 27 November 2019 / Revised: 15 December 2019 / Accepted: 17 December 2019 / Published: 13 February 2020
The present work investigated the biodiesel production from used cooking oil catalyzed by nano-bifunctional supermagnetic heterogeneous catalysts (RHC/K2O/Fe) derived from rice husk doped with K2O and Fe synthesized by the wet impregnation method. The synthesized catalysts (RHC/K2O/Fe) were characterized for crystallinity by X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD), total acidity and basicity using CO2/NH3-TPD, textural properties through Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), thermal stability via thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA), functional group determination by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), surface morphology through field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and magnetic properties by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The VSM result demonstrated that the super-paramagnetic catalyst (RHC/K2O-20%/Fe-5%) could be simply separated and regained after the reaction using an external magnetic field. The operating conditions such as catalyst loading, methanol/oil molar ratio, temperature, and reaction duration were studied. The screened RHC/K2O-20%/Fe-5% catalyst was selected for further optimization and the optimum reaction parameters found were 4 wt % of catalyst, a molar ratio of methanol/oil of 12:1, 4 h reaction duration, and 75 °C reaction temperature with a maximal yield of 98.6%. The reusability study and reactivation results revealed that the nano-bifunctional magnetic catalyst (RHC/K2O-20%/Fe-5%) could be preserved by high catalytic activity even after being reused five times. View Full-Text
Keywords: rice husk; nano-magnetic catalyst; heterogeneous catalyst; used cooking oil; biodiesel rice husk; nano-magnetic catalyst; heterogeneous catalyst; used cooking oil; biodiesel
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Hazmi, B.; Rashid, U.; Taufiq-Yap, Y.H.; Ibrahim, M.L.; Nehdi, I.A. Supermagnetic Nano-Bifunctional Catalyst from Rice Husk: Synthesis, Characterization and Application for Conversion of Used Cooking Oil to Biodiesel. Catalysts 2020, 10, 225.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop