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Catalytic Technologies for Solving Environmental Problems in the Production of Fuels and Motor Transport in Kazakhstan

JSC “Institute of Fuel, Catalysis and Electrochemistry after D.V. Sokolsky”, 142 D.Kunayev street, Almaty 050010, Kazakhstan
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Catalysts 2020, 10(10), 1197; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal10101197
Received: 27 August 2020 / Revised: 12 October 2020 / Accepted: 13 October 2020 / Published: 16 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Catalysis)
This research is devoted to solving an environmental problem, cleaning of the Kazakhstan air basin, through treatment of auto-transport toxic exhaust by improving the hydrocarbon composition of motor fuels and neutralizing exhaust gas toxic components. The catalytic hydrodearomatization of gasoline fractions (from the reforming stage) of the Atyrau and Pavlodar Refineries and the neutralization of exhaust gas toxic components from an internal combustion engine (ICE) were studied. Two hydrotreated gasoline fractions were tested during ICE operation. The research shows that 100% benzene conversion is observed over Rh-Pt(9:1)/γ-Al2O3 catalysts; that is, benzene is completely removed from both fractions, and the aromatics content decreases from 56.24–58.12% to 21.29–21.89%, within the values of the Euro-5,6 standard. Catalytic treatment of fuels reduces fuel consumption of the ICE engine by 2–3% compared to the initial gasoline fractions, the CO content in the exhaust gases decreases by 6.6–16.2%, and the hydrocarbon content decreases by 7.8–24.7%. In order to neutralize the ICE exhaust gas toxic components, the catalyst 10% Co + 0.5% Pt/Al2O3 was used, with which the CO conversion reaches 100% and the hydrocarbon conversion 94.2% and 91.5% for both gasoline fractions. The catalysts were characterized by electron microscopy (EM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET), thermoprogrammed desorption (TPD) and thermoprogrammed reduction (TPR) methods. It was shown by the TPD and EM methods that at the addition of Pt to the Rh-catalyst, the formation of mixed bimetallic Rh-Pt-agglomerates occurs, and hydrogen appears in the TPD spectrum, adsorbed in the form of a new single peak uncharacteristic for the Rh-catalyst. This leads to high activity and selectivity in the hydrogenation of benzene and aromatic compounds in the gasoline fractions. The XRD and TPR results show the formation of CoAl2O4 spinels, on which inactive oxygen is formed for the oxidation of CO and hydrocarbons. Modification of the catalyst by Pt and Mg prevents spinel formation, thereby increasing the activity of the catalysts. View Full-Text
Keywords: rhodium-platinum catalyst; cobalt-platinum catalyst; hydrodearomatization; oxidation; gasoline fractions; exhaust gases; neutralization rhodium-platinum catalyst; cobalt-platinum catalyst; hydrodearomatization; oxidation; gasoline fractions; exhaust gases; neutralization
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Massenova, A.; Kalykberdiyev, M.; Sass, A.; Kenzin, N.; Ussenov, A.; Baiken, A.; Rakhmetova, K. Catalytic Technologies for Solving Environmental Problems in the Production of Fuels and Motor Transport in Kazakhstan. Catalysts 2020, 10, 1197.

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