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Games 2018, 9(4), 78; https://doi.org/10.3390/g9040078

How to Split Gains and Losses? Experimental Evidence of Dictator and Ultimatum Games

1
Chair in Empirical Economics, Otto-von-Guericke-University Magdeburg, Postbox 4120, 39016 Magdeburg, Germany
2
Institute of Sociology, University of Leipzig, Beethovenstr. 15, 04107 Leipzig, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 August 2018 / Revised: 26 September 2018 / Accepted: 3 October 2018 / Published: 5 October 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dictator Games)
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Abstract

Previous research has typically focused on distribution problems that emerge in the domain of gains. Only a few studies have distinguished between games played in the domain of gains from games in the domain of losses, even though, for example, prospect theory predicts differences between behavior in both domains. In this study, we experimentally analyze players’ behavior in dictator and ultimatum games when they need to divide a monetary loss and then compare this to behavior when players have to divide a monetary gain. We find that players treat gains and losses differently in that they are less generous in games over losses and react differently to prior experiences. Players in the dictator game become more selfish after they have had the experience of playing an ultimatum game first. View Full-Text
Keywords: dictator game; ultimatum game; gains; losses; equal split; experimental economics dictator game; ultimatum game; gains; losses; equal split; experimental economics
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Neumann, T.; Kierspel, S.; Windrich, I.; Berger, R.; Vogt, B. How to Split Gains and Losses? Experimental Evidence of Dictator and Ultimatum Games. Games 2018, 9, 78.

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