Previous Article in Journal
IVAN: An Interactive Herlofson’s Nomogram Visualizer for Local Weather Forecast
Article Menu

Article Versions

Export Article

Open AccessArticle

A Complexity Metrics Suite for Cascading Style Sheets

Department of Computer and Information Sciences, Covenant University, Canaanland, Ota 0123, Nigeria
Department of Computer Engineering, Atilim University, 06830 Ankara, Turkey
Department of Software Engineering, Kaunas University of Technology, 51368 Kaunas, Lithuania
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Computers 2019, 8(3), 54;
Received: 6 June 2019 / Revised: 1 July 2019 / Accepted: 8 July 2019 / Published: 10 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Code Generation, Analysis and Quality Testing)
PDF [466 KB, uploaded 10 July 2019]


We perform a theoretical and empirical analysis of a set of Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) document complexity metrics. The metrics are validated using a practical framework that demonstrates their viability. The theoretical analysis is performed using the Weyuker’s properties−a widely adopted approach to conducting empirical validations of metrics proposals. The empirical analysis is conducted using visual and statistical analysis of distribution of metric values, Cliff’s delta, Chi-square and Liliefors statistical normality tests, and correlation analysis on our own dataset of CSS documents. The results show that five out of the nine metrics (56%) satisfy Weyuker’s properties except for the Number of Attributes Defined per Rule Block (NADRB) metric, which satisfies six out of nine (67%) properties. In addition, the results from the statistical analysis show good statistical distribution characteristics (only the Number of Extended Rule Blocks (NERB) metric exceeds the rule-of-thumb threshold value of the Cliff’s delta). The correlation between the metric values and the size of the CSS documents is insignificant, suggesting that the presented metrics are indeed complexity rather than size metrics. The practical application of the presented CSS complexity metric suite is to assess the risk of CSS documents. The proposed CSS complexity metrics suite allows identification of CSS files that require immediate attention of software maintenance personnel.
Keywords: CSS; software complexity metrics; software maintainability; metric validation CSS; software complexity metrics; software maintainability; metric validation
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Adewumi, A.; Misra, S.; Damaševičius, R. A Complexity Metrics Suite for Cascading Style Sheets. Computers 2019, 8, 54.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Computers EISSN 2073-431X Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top