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Open AccessFeature PaperReview

Different Subsets of T Cells, Memory, Effector Functions, and CAR-T Immunotherapy

Promab Biotechnologies, 2600 Hilltop Drive, Suite 320, Richmond, CA 94803, USA
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Samuel C. Mok
Cancers 2016, 8(3), 36;
Received: 8 January 2016 / Revised: 7 March 2016 / Accepted: 10 March 2016 / Published: 15 March 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancer Immunotherapies)
PDF [874 KB, uploaded 16 March 2016]


This review is focused on different subsets of T cells: CD4 and CD8, memory and effector functions, and their role in CAR-T therapy––a cellular adoptive immunotherapy with T cells expressing chimeric antigen receptor. The CAR-T cells recognize tumor antigens and induce cytotoxic activities against tumor cells. Recently, differences in T cell functions and the role of memory and effector T cells were shown to be important in CAR-T cell immunotherapy. The CD4+ subsets (Th1, Th2, Th9, Th17, Th22, Treg, and Tfh) and CD8+ memory and effector subsets differ in extra-cellular (CD25, CD45RO, CD45RA, CCR-7, L-Selectin [CD62L], etc.); intracellular markers (FOXP3); epigenetic and genetic programs; and metabolic pathways (catabolic or anabolic); and these differences can be modulated to improve CAR-T therapy. In addition, CD4+ Treg cells suppress the efficacy of CAR-T cell therapy, and different approaches to overcome this suppression are discussed in this review. Thus, next-generation CAR-T immunotherapy can be improved, based on our knowledge of T cell subsets functions, differentiation, proliferation, and signaling pathways to generate more active CAR-T cells against tumors. View Full-Text
Keywords: chimeric antigen receptor (CAR); immunotherapy; cancer; CD4 T cells; CD8 T cells chimeric antigen receptor (CAR); immunotherapy; cancer; CD4 T cells; CD8 T cells

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Golubovskaya, V.; Wu, L. Different Subsets of T Cells, Memory, Effector Functions, and CAR-T Immunotherapy. Cancers 2016, 8, 36.

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