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Open AccessFeature PaperCase Report
Cancers 2015, 7(4), 2459-2465;

Acute Myeloid Leukemia with Isolated Trisomy 19 Associated with Diffuse Myelofibrosis and Osteosclerosis

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of California Davis Medical Center, PATH Bldg. 4400 V Street, Sacramento, CA 95817, USA
Division of Hematology and Oncology, University of California Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA 95817, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Huey-Jen Lin
Received: 8 September 2015 / Revised: 9 November 2015 / Accepted: 7 December 2015 / Published: 14 December 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts)
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Primary myelofibrosis (PMF), per WHO criteria, is a clonal myeloproliferative neoplasm that usually presents with a proliferation of granulocytic and megakaryocytic lineages with an associated fibrous deposition and extramedullary hematopoiesis. The bone marrow histologic findings of this disorder are typically characterized by the presence of myeloid metaplasia with an associated reactive fibrosis, angiogenesis, and osteosclerosis. However, marked myelofibrosis is not solely confined to PMF and may also be associated with other conditions including but not limited to acute megakaryoblastic leukemias (FAB AML-M7). Here, we describe a rare case of a non-megakaryoblastic acute myeloid leukemia with marked myelofibrosis with osteosclerosis and an isolated trisomy 19. A 19-year-old male presented with severe bone pain of one week duration with a complete blood cell count and peripheral smear showing a mild anemia and occasional circulating blasts. A follow up computed tomography (CT) scan showed diffuse osteosclerosis with no evidence of hepatosplenomegaly or lymphadenopathy. Subsequently, the bone marrow biopsy showed markedly sclerotic bony trabeculae and a hypercellular marrow with marked fibrosis and intervening sheets of immature myeloid cells consistent with myeloblasts with monocytic differentiation. Importantly, these myeloblasts were negative for megakaryocytic markers (CD61 and vWF), erythroid markers (hemoglobin and E-cadherin), and lymphoid markers (CD3, CD19, and TdT). Metaphase cytogenetics showed an isolated triosomy 19 with no JAK2 V617F mutation. The patient was treated with induction chemotherapy followed by allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation which subsequently resulted in a rapid resolution of bone marrow fibrosis, suggesting graft-anti-fibrosis effect. This is a rare case of a non-megakaryoblastic acute myeloid leukemia with myelofibrosis and osteosclerosis with trisomy 19 that may provide insights into the prognosis and therapeutic options of future cases. View Full-Text
Keywords: acute myeloid leukemia; trisomy 19; myelofibrosis; osteosclerosis acute myeloid leukemia; trisomy 19; myelofibrosis; osteosclerosis

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Stelling, A.; Jonas, B.A.; Rashidi, H.H.; Abedi, M.; Chen, M. Acute Myeloid Leukemia with Isolated Trisomy 19 Associated with Diffuse Myelofibrosis and Osteosclerosis. Cancers 2015, 7, 2459-2465.

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