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Vitamin D Is a Multilevel Repressor of Wnt/b-Catenin Signaling in Cancer Cells
Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas "Alberto Sols", Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Arturo Duperier 4, Madrid 28029, Spain
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 August 2013; in revised form: 2 October 2013 / Accepted: 10 October 2013 / Published: 21 October 2013
Abstract: The Wnt/b-catenin signaling pathway is abnormally activated in most colorectal cancers and in a proportion of other neoplasias. This activation initiates or contributes to carcinogenesis by regulating the expression of a large number of genes in tumor cells. The active vitamin D metabolite 1a,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) inhibits Wnt/b-catenin signaling by several mechanisms at different points along the pathway. Additionally, paracrine actions of 1,25(OH)2D3 on stromal cells may also repress this pathway in neighbouring tumor cells. Here we review the molecular basis for the various mechanisms by which 1,25(OH)2D3 antagonizes Wnt/b-catenin signaling, preferentially in human colon carcinoma cells, and the consequences of this inhibition for the phenotype and proliferation rate. The effect of the vitamin D system on Wnt/b-catenin signaling and tumor growth in animal models will also be commented in detail. Finally, we revise existing data on the relation between vitamin D receptor expression and vitamin D status and the expression of Wnt/b-catenin pathway genes and targets in cancer patients.
Keywords: vitamin D; 1a,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3; Wnt; b-catenin; colon cancer; vitamin D receptor
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Larriba, M.J.; González-Sancho, J.M.; Barbáchano, A.; Niell, N.; Ferrer-Mayorga, G.; Muñoz, A. Vitamin D Is a Multilevel Repressor of Wnt/b-Catenin Signaling in Cancer Cells. Cancers 2013, 5, 1242-1260.
Larriba MJ, González-Sancho JM, Barbáchano A, Niell N, Ferrer-Mayorga G, Muñoz A. Vitamin D Is a Multilevel Repressor of Wnt/b-Catenin Signaling in Cancer Cells. Cancers. 2013; 5(4):1242-1260.
Larriba, María J.; González-Sancho, José M.; Barbáchano, Antonio; Niell, Núria; Ferrer-Mayorga, Gemma; Muñoz, Alberto. 2013. "Vitamin D Is a Multilevel Repressor of Wnt/b-Catenin Signaling in Cancer Cells." Cancers 5, no. 4: 1242-1260.