Pancreatic cancer is characterized by an often dramatic outcome (five year survival < 5%) related to a late diagnosis and a lack of efficient therapy. Therefore, clinicians desperately need new biomarkers and new therapeutic tools to develop new efficient therapies. Mucins belong to an ever increasing family of O
-glycoproteins. Secreted mucins are the main component of mucus protecting the epithelia whereas membrane-bound mucins are thought to play important biological roles in cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions, in cell signaling and in modulating biological properties of cancer cells. In this review, we will focus on the altered expression pattern of mucins in pancreatic cancer, from the early neoplastic lesion Pancreatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia (PanIN) to invasive pancreatic carcinomas, and the molecular mechanisms (including genetic and epigenetic regulation) and signaling pathways known to control their expression. Moreover, we will discuss the recent advances about the biology of both secreted and membrane-bound mucins and their key roles in pancreatic carcinogenesis and resistance to therapy. Finally, we will discuss exciting opportunities that mucins offer as potential therapeutic targets in pancreatic cancer.