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Article

Convolutional Neural Networks to Detect Vestibular Schwannomas on Single MRI Slices: A Feasibility Study

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Department of Radiation Oncology, Kantonsspital Winterthur, 8401 Winterthur, Switzerland
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Department of Radiation Oncology, Kantonsspital St. Gallen, 9007 St. Gallen, Switzerland
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Department of Radiology, Kantonsspital St. Gallen, 9007 St. Gallen, Switzerland
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Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Bern, 3010 Bern, Switzerland
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Berlin Institute of Health at Charité—Universitätsmedizin Berlin, 10117 Berlin, Germany
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Charité—Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Corporate Member of Freie Universität Berlin and Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Department of Radiation Oncology, 13353 Berlin, Germany
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European Radiosurgery Center, 81377 Munich, Germany
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Department of Stereotaxy and Functional Neurosurgery, University of Cologne, Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital Cologne, 50937 Cologne, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Brigitta G. Baumert and Salvatore Cappabianca
Cancers 2022, 14(9), 2069; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14092069
Received: 10 March 2022 / Revised: 30 March 2022 / Accepted: 19 April 2022 / Published: 20 April 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Deep Neural Networks for Cancer Screening and Classification)
Due to the fact that they take inter-slice information into account, 3D- and 2.5D-convolutional neural networks (CNNs) potentially perform better in tumor detection tasks than 2D-CNNs. However, this potential benefit is at the expense of increased computational power and the need for segmentations as an input. Therefore, in this study we aimed to detect vestibular schwannomas (VSs) in individual magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) slices by using a 2D-CNN. We retrained (539 patients) and internally validated (94 patients) a pretrained CNN using contrast-enhanced MRI slices from one institution. Furthermore, we externally validated the CNN using contrast-enhanced MRI slices from another institution. This resulted in an accuracy of 0.949 (95% CI 0.935–0.963) and 0.912 (95% CI 0.866–0.958) for the internal and external validation, respectively. Our findings indicate that 2D-CNNs might be a promising alternative to 2.5-/3D-CNNs for certain tasks thanks to the decreased requirement for computational power and the fact that there is no need for segmentations.
In this study. we aimed to detect vestibular schwannomas (VSs) in individual magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) slices by using a 2D-CNN. A pretrained CNN (ResNet-34) was retrained and internally validated using contrast-enhanced T1-weighted (T1c) MRI slices from one institution. In a second step, the model was externally validated using T1c- and T1-weighted (T1) slices from a different institution. As a substitute, bisected slices were used with and without tumors originating from whole transversal slices that contained part of the unilateral VS. The model predictions were assessed based on the categorical accuracy and confusion matrices. A total of 539, 94, and 74 patients were included for training, internal validation, and external T1c validation, respectively. This resulted in an accuracy of 0.949 (95% CI 0.935–0.963) for the internal validation and 0.912 (95% CI 0.866–0.958) for the external T1c validation. We suggest that 2D-CNNs might be a promising alternative to 2.5-/3D-CNNs for certain tasks thanks to the decreased demand for computational power and the fact that there is no need for segmentations. However, further research is needed on the difference between 2D-CNNs and more complex architectures. View Full-Text
Keywords: artificial intelligence; deep learning; machine learning; vestibular; schwannoma; neuro-oncology artificial intelligence; deep learning; machine learning; vestibular; schwannoma; neuro-oncology
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Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Koechli, C.; Vu, E.; Sager, P.; Näf, L.; Fischer, T.; Putora, P.M.; Ehret, F.; Fürweger, C.; Schröder, C.; Förster, R.; Zwahlen, D.R.; Muacevic, A.; Windisch, P. Convolutional Neural Networks to Detect Vestibular Schwannomas on Single MRI Slices: A Feasibility Study. Cancers 2022, 14, 2069. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14092069

AMA Style

Koechli C, Vu E, Sager P, Näf L, Fischer T, Putora PM, Ehret F, Fürweger C, Schröder C, Förster R, Zwahlen DR, Muacevic A, Windisch P. Convolutional Neural Networks to Detect Vestibular Schwannomas on Single MRI Slices: A Feasibility Study. Cancers. 2022; 14(9):2069. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14092069

Chicago/Turabian Style

Koechli, Carole, Erwin Vu, Philipp Sager, Lukas Näf, Tim Fischer, Paul M. Putora, Felix Ehret, Christoph Fürweger, Christina Schröder, Robert Förster, Daniel R. Zwahlen, Alexander Muacevic, and Paul Windisch. 2022. "Convolutional Neural Networks to Detect Vestibular Schwannomas on Single MRI Slices: A Feasibility Study" Cancers 14, no. 9: 2069. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14092069

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