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Article

PITX1 Is a Regulator of TERT Expression in Prostate Cancer with Prognostic Power

1
Integrated Research and Treatment Center, Center for Sepsis Control and Care (CSCC), Jena University Hospital, Am Klinikum 1, 07747 Jena, Germany
2
Division of Chromatin Networks, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ) and BioQuant Center, Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
3
Department of Pathology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistraße 52, 20251 Hamburg, Germany
4
Institute for Infectious Diseases and Infection Control (IIMK), Jena University Hospital, Am Klinikum 1, 07747 Jena, Germany
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Institute of Human Genetics, Jena University Hospital, Am Klinikum 1, 07747 Jena, Germany
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VIROQUANT CellNetworks RNAi Screening Facility and Research Group High-Content Analysis of the Cell (HiCell), BioQuant Center, Heidelberg University, Im Neuenheimer Feld 267, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
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Biomedical Computer Vision Group, BioQuant Center and IPMB, Heidelberg University and German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 267, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
8
Martini-Clinic, Prostate Cancer Center, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, 20251 Hamburg, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editors: Marieke L. Kuijjer and Camila M. Lopes-Ramos
Cancers 2022, 14(5), 1267; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14051267
Received: 11 January 2022 / Revised: 23 February 2022 / Accepted: 24 February 2022 / Published: 1 March 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gene Regulatory Networks in Cancers)
Most prostate cancer is of an indolent form and is curable. However, some prostate cancer belongs to rather aggressive subtypes leading to metastasis and death, and immediate therapy is mandatory. However, for these, the therapeutic options are highly invasive, such as radical prostatectomy, radiation or brachytherapy. Hence, a precise diagnosis of these tumor subtypes is needed, and the thus far applied diagnostic means are insufficient for this. Besides this, for their endless cell divisions, prostate cancer cells need the enzyme telomerase to elongate their telomeres (chromatin endings). In this study, we developed a gene regulatory model based on large data from transcription profiles from prostate cancer and chromatin-immuno-precipitation studies. We identified the developmental regulator PITX1 regulating telomerase. Besides observing experimental evidence of PITX1′s functional role in telomerase regulation, we also found PITX1 serving as a prognostic marker, as concluded from an analysis of more than 15,000 prostate cancer samples.
The current risk stratification in prostate cancer (PCa) is frequently insufficient to adequately predict disease development and outcome. One hallmark of cancer is telomere maintenance. For telomere maintenance, PCa cells exclusively employ telomerase, making it essential for this cancer entity. However, TERT, the catalytic protein component of the reverse transcriptase telomerase, itself does not suit as a prognostic marker for prostate cancer as it is rather low expressed. We investigated if, instead of TERT, transcription factors regulating TERT may suit as prognostic markers. To identify transcription factors regulating TERT, we developed and applied a new gene regulatory modeling strategy to a comprehensive transcriptome dataset of 445 primary PCa. Six transcription factors were predicted as TERT regulators, and most prominently, the developmental morphogenic factor PITX1. PITX1 expression positively correlated with telomere staining intensity in PCa tumor samples. Functional assays and chromatin immune-precipitation showed that PITX1 activates TERT expression in PCa cells. Clinically, we observed that PITX1 is an excellent prognostic marker, as concluded from an analysis of more than 15,000 PCa samples. PITX1 expression in tumor samples associated with (i) increased Ki67 expression indicating increased tumor growth, (ii) a worse prognosis, and (iii) correlated with telomere length. View Full-Text
Keywords: regulatory networks; prostate cancer; biomarkers; PITX1; mixed integer linear programming; modularity; transcription factors regulatory networks; prostate cancer; biomarkers; PITX1; mixed integer linear programming; modularity; transcription factors
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MDPI and ACS Style

Poos, A.M.; Schroeder, C.; Jaishankar, N.; Röll, D.; Oswald, M.; Meiners, J.; Braun, D.M.; Knotz, C.; Frank, L.; Gunkel, M.; Spilger, R.; Wollmann, T.; Polonski, A.; Makrypidi-Fraune, G.; Fraune, C.; Graefen, M.; Chung, I.; Stenzel, A.; Erfle, H.; Rohr, K.; Baniahmad, A.; Sauter, G.; Rippe, K.; Simon, R.; Koenig, R. PITX1 Is a Regulator of TERT Expression in Prostate Cancer with Prognostic Power. Cancers 2022, 14, 1267. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14051267

AMA Style

Poos AM, Schroeder C, Jaishankar N, Röll D, Oswald M, Meiners J, Braun DM, Knotz C, Frank L, Gunkel M, Spilger R, Wollmann T, Polonski A, Makrypidi-Fraune G, Fraune C, Graefen M, Chung I, Stenzel A, Erfle H, Rohr K, Baniahmad A, Sauter G, Rippe K, Simon R, Koenig R. PITX1 Is a Regulator of TERT Expression in Prostate Cancer with Prognostic Power. Cancers. 2022; 14(5):1267. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14051267

Chicago/Turabian Style

Poos, Alexandra M., Cornelia Schroeder, Neeraja Jaishankar, Daniela Röll, Marcus Oswald, Jan Meiners, Delia M. Braun, Caroline Knotz, Lukas Frank, Manuel Gunkel, Roman Spilger, Thomas Wollmann, Adam Polonski, Georgia Makrypidi-Fraune, Christoph Fraune, Markus Graefen, Inn Chung, Alexander Stenzel, Holger Erfle, Karl Rohr, Aria Baniahmad, Guido Sauter, Karsten Rippe, Ronald Simon, and Rainer Koenig. 2022. "PITX1 Is a Regulator of TERT Expression in Prostate Cancer with Prognostic Power" Cancers 14, no. 5: 1267. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14051267

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