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Article

Development of Preclinical Ultrasound Imaging Techniques to Identify and Image Sentinel Lymph Nodes in a Cancerous Animal Model

1
Cancer Research UK Edinburgh Centre, Institute of Genetics and Cancer, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH4 2XR, UK
2
Centre for Cardiovascular Science, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH16 4JT, UK
3
Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Lund University, 223 63 Lund, Sweden
4
Biomedical Engineering, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G1 1QE, UK
5
MRC Human Genetics Unit, Institute of Genetics and Cancer, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH4 2XR, UK
6
Department of Surgery, Royal Alexandra Hospital, Paisley PA2 9PJ, UK
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Department of Clinical Sciences Lund, Biomedical Engineering, Lund University, 223 63 Lund, Sweden
8
Clinical Engineering Skåne, Digitalisering IT/MT, Skåne Regional Council, 291 89 Lund, Sweden
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Gail ter Haar
Cancers 2022, 14(3), 561; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14030561
Received: 10 January 2022 / Accepted: 19 January 2022 / Published: 22 January 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ultrasound-Based Treatments of Cancer)
Bowel cancer is the fourth most common cancer in the UK. Treatment is dominated by major surgery because current imaging modalities cannot accurately determine lymph node involvement or vascular invasion. Although potentially curative, surgery carries a high risk of short- and long-term morbidity, including stoma formation. Optimized pre-treatment imaging would decrease the number of bowel cancer patients requiring major surgery. Such imaging would also be equally applicable to other cancers where local resection could significantly improve patient quality of life without compromising long-term outcomes (e.g., melanoma, head and neck cancers, gastro-esophageal, bladder). In this study, we created two mouse models (tumor and control) and used the resolution of high-frequency ultrasound imaging and parameters calculated from dynamically contrast-enhanced ultrasound to predict the likelihood of draining lymph nodes to be involved in the disease.
Lymph nodes (LNs) are believed to be the first organs targeted by colorectal cancer cells detached from a primary solid tumor because of their role in draining interstitial fluids. Better detection and assessment of these organs have the potential to help clinicians in stratification and designing optimal design of oncological treatments for each patient. Whilst highly valuable for the detection of primary tumors, CT and MRI remain limited for the characterization of LNs. B-mode ultrasound (US) and contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) can improve the detection of LNs and could provide critical complementary information to MRI and CT scans; however, the European Federation of Societies for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology (EFSUMB) guidelines advise that further evidence is required before US or CEUS can be recommended for clinical use. Moreover, knowledge of the lymphatic system and LNs is relatively limited, especially in preclinical models. In this pilot study, we have created a mouse model of metastatic cancer and utilized 3D high-frequency ultrasound to assess the volume, shape, and absence of hilum, along with CEUS to assess the flow dynamics of tumor-free and tumor-bearing LNs in vivo. The aforementioned parameters were used to create a scoring system to predict the likelihood of a disease-involved LN before establishing post-mortem diagnosis with histopathology. Preliminary results suggest that a sum score of parameters may provide a more accurate diagnosis than the LN size, the single parameter currently used to predict the involvement of an LN in disease. View Full-Text
Keywords: contrast-enhanced ultrasound; 3D ultrasound; preclinical; lymph node; colorectal cancer; metastatic mouse model contrast-enhanced ultrasound; 3D ultrasound; preclinical; lymph node; colorectal cancer; metastatic mouse model
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MDPI and ACS Style

Bacou, M.; Rajasekaran, V.; Thomson, A.; Sjöstrand, S.; Kaczmarek, K.; Ochocka-Fox, A.M.; Gerrard, A.D.; Moug, S.; Jansson, T.; Mulvana, H.; Moran, C.M.; Farrington, S.M. Development of Preclinical Ultrasound Imaging Techniques to Identify and Image Sentinel Lymph Nodes in a Cancerous Animal Model. Cancers 2022, 14, 561. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14030561

AMA Style

Bacou M, Rajasekaran V, Thomson A, Sjöstrand S, Kaczmarek K, Ochocka-Fox AM, Gerrard AD, Moug S, Jansson T, Mulvana H, Moran CM, Farrington SM. Development of Preclinical Ultrasound Imaging Techniques to Identify and Image Sentinel Lymph Nodes in a Cancerous Animal Model. Cancers. 2022; 14(3):561. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14030561

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bacou, Marion, Vidya Rajasekaran, Adrian Thomson, Sandra Sjöstrand, Katarzyna Kaczmarek, Anna M. Ochocka-Fox, Adam D. Gerrard, Susan Moug, Tomas Jansson, Helen Mulvana, Carmel M. Moran, and Susan M. Farrington. 2022. "Development of Preclinical Ultrasound Imaging Techniques to Identify and Image Sentinel Lymph Nodes in a Cancerous Animal Model" Cancers 14, no. 3: 561. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14030561

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