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Article

No Impact of Seasonality of Diagnoses on Baseline Tumor Immune Infiltration, Response to Treatment, and Prognosis in BC Patients Treated with NAC

1
Residual Tumor & Response to Treatment Laboratory, RT2Lab, Translational Research Department, INSERM, U932 Immunity and Cancer, University Paris, 75005 Paris, France
2
Department of Surgical Oncology, Institut Curie, University Paris, 75005 Paris, France
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Department of Surgery, College of Medicine, Imam Mohammad Ibn Saud Islamic University (IMSIU), Riyadh 11564, Saudi Arabia
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Department of Surgical Oncology, Institut Godinot, Université de Lorraine, 51100 Reims, France
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Department of Medical Oncology, Institut Godinot, Université de Lorraine, 51100 Reims, France
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Henri Becquerel Cancer Center, Department of Pathology, INSERM U1245, UniRouen Normandy University, 76130 Rouen, France
7
Department of Pathology, Institut Curie, University Paris, 75231 Paris, France
8
Department of Medical Oncology, Institut Curie, University Paris, 75231 Paris, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Guy Launoy
Cancers 2022, 14(13), 3080; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14133080
Received: 13 May 2022 / Revised: 15 June 2022 / Accepted: 20 June 2022 / Published: 23 June 2022
High tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) levels are associated with an increased response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) in breast cancer (BC). The seasonal fluctuation of TILs in breast cancer is poorly documented. In this study, we compared pre- and post-treatment immune infiltration, the treatment response as assessed by means of pathological complete response (pCR) rates, and survival according to the seasonality of BC diagnoses in a clinical cohort of patients treated with NAC. We found no association between seasonality and baseline TIL levels or pCR rates. We found that post-NAC stromal lymphocyte infiltration was lower when cancer was diagnosed in the summer, especially in the subgroup of patients with TNBC. Our data do not support the hypothesis that the seasonality of diagnoses has a major impact on the natural history of BC treated with NAC.
Breast cancer (BC) is the most common cancer in women worldwide. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) makes it possible to monitor in vivo response to treatment. Several studies have investigated the impact of the seasons on the incidence and detection of BC, on tumor composition, and on the prognosis of BC. However, no evidence is available on their association with immune infiltration and the response to treatment. The objective of this study was to analyze pre- and post-NAC immune infiltration as assessed by TIL levels, the response to treatment as assessed by pathological complete response (pCR) rates, and oncological outcomes as assessed by relapse-free survival (RFS) or overall survival (OS) according to the seasonality of BC diagnoses in a clinical cohort of patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Out of 1199 patients, the repartition of the season at BC diagnosis showed that 27.2% were diagnosed in fall, 25.4% in winter, 24% in spring, and 23.4% in summer. Baseline patient and tumor characteristics, including notable pre-NAC TIL levels, were not significantly different in terms of the season of BC diagnosis. Similarly, the pCR rates were not different. No association for oncological outcome was identified. Our data do not support the idea that the seasonality of diagnoses has a major impact on the natural history of BC treated with NAC. View Full-Text
Keywords: breast cancer; neoadjuvant chemotherapy; season; seasonality; sunlight; response to treatment; pCR; immune infiltration; prognosis; survival breast cancer; neoadjuvant chemotherapy; season; seasonality; sunlight; response to treatment; pCR; immune infiltration; prognosis; survival
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MDPI and ACS Style

Grandal, B.; Aljehani, A.; Dumas, E.; Daoud, E.; Jochum, F.; Gougis, P.; Hotton, J.; Lemoine, A.; Michel, S.; Laas, E.; Laé, M.; Pierga, J.-Y.; Alaoui Ismaili, K.; Lerebours, F.; Reyal, F.; Hamy, A.S. No Impact of Seasonality of Diagnoses on Baseline Tumor Immune Infiltration, Response to Treatment, and Prognosis in BC Patients Treated with NAC. Cancers 2022, 14, 3080. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14133080

AMA Style

Grandal B, Aljehani A, Dumas E, Daoud E, Jochum F, Gougis P, Hotton J, Lemoine A, Michel S, Laas E, Laé M, Pierga J-Y, Alaoui Ismaili K, Lerebours F, Reyal F, Hamy AS. No Impact of Seasonality of Diagnoses on Baseline Tumor Immune Infiltration, Response to Treatment, and Prognosis in BC Patients Treated with NAC. Cancers. 2022; 14(13):3080. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14133080

Chicago/Turabian Style

Grandal, Beatriz, Ashwaq Aljehani, Elise Dumas, Eric Daoud, Floriane Jochum, Paul Gougis, Judicaël Hotton, Amélie Lemoine, Sophie Michel, Enora Laas, Marick Laé, Jean-Yves Pierga, Khaoula Alaoui Ismaili, Florence Lerebours, Fabien Reyal, and Anne S. Hamy. 2022. "No Impact of Seasonality of Diagnoses on Baseline Tumor Immune Infiltration, Response to Treatment, and Prognosis in BC Patients Treated with NAC" Cancers 14, no. 13: 3080. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14133080

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