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Article

Image-Guided Adaptive Brachytherapy (IGABT) for Primary Vaginal Cancer: Results of the International Multicenter RetroEMBRAVE Cohort Study

1
Department of Radiation Oncology, Amsterdam University Medical Centers, location AMC, University of Amsterdam, 1105 Amsterdam, The Netherlands
2
Department of Radiation Oncology, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical University of Vienna, 1090 Vienna, Austria
3
Department of Radiation Oncology, Leiden University Medical Center, 2333 Leiden, The Netherlands
4
Department of Radiotherapy, Erasmus MC Cancer Institute, University Medical Center Rotterdam, 3015 Rotterdam, The Netherlands
5
Brachytherapy Unit, Gustave Roussy Cancer Campus, Université Paris Saclay, 94805 Villesuif, France
6
Department of Oncology, Aarhus University Hospital, 8200 Aarhus, Denmark
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Deceased.
Academic Editor: David Wong
Cancers 2021, 13(6), 1459; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13061459
Received: 26 January 2021 / Revised: 16 March 2021 / Accepted: 19 March 2021 / Published: 23 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancer Imaging: Current Practice and Future Perspectives)
Primary vaginal cancer is a rare disease and, consequently, evidence about the outcome of treatment is scarce. The aim of our retrospective, observational multicenter study was to assess the oncological outcome of the nowadays standing treatment for vaginal cancer, namely radio(chemo)therapy, followed by image-guided adaptive brachytherapy (IGABT). Our study confirms the results of the earlier published small monocentric IGABT studies, showing a high local control with acceptable morbidity. Notably, patients with large (T3/T4) tumors especially seem to benefit from volumetric (3D) image-guided brachytherapy, as compared to two-dimensional-based radiotherapy. In addition, although interpreted with caution, as for cervical cancer, a higher dose seems to lead to better local control. These results should, however, be further investigated in a prospective trial.
Purpose: This study assessed outcomes following the nowadays standing treatment for primary vaginal cancer with radio(chemo)therapy and image-guided adaptive brachytherapy (IGABT) in a multicenter patient cohort. Methods: Patients treated with computer tomography (CT)–MRI-assisted-based IGABT were included. Retrospective data collection included patient, tumor and treatment characteristics. Late morbidity was assessed by using the CTCAE 3.0 scale. Results: Five European centers included 148 consecutive patients, with a median age of 63 years. At a median follow-up of 29 months (IQR 25–57), two- and five-year local control were 86% and 83%; disease-free survival (DFS) was 73% and 66%, and overall survival (OS) was 79% and 68%, respectively. Crude incidences of ≥ grade-three urogenital, gastro-intestinal and vaginal morbidity was 8%, 3% and 8%, respectively. Lymph node metastasis was an independent prognostic factor for disease-free survival (DFS). Univariate analysis showed improved local control in patients with T2–T4 tumors if >80 Gy EQD2α/β10 was delivered to the clinical target volume (CTV) at the time of brachytherapy. Conclusions: In this large retrospective multicenter study, IGABT for primary vaginal cancer resulted in a high local control with acceptable morbidity. These results compared favorably with two-dimensional (2D) radiograph-based brachytherapy and illustrate that IGABT plays an important role in the treatment of vaginal cancer. View Full-Text
Keywords: brachytherapy; IGABT; image-guided brachytherapy; MRI; radiotherapy; vaginal cancer; RetroEMBRAVE brachytherapy; IGABT; image-guided brachytherapy; MRI; radiotherapy; vaginal cancer; RetroEMBRAVE
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MDPI and ACS Style

Westerveld, H.; Schmid, M.P.; Nout, R.A.; Chargari, C.; Pieters, B.R.; Creutzberg, C.L.; Sturdza, A.; Lindegaard, J.C.; van Kesteren, Z.; Mazeron, R.; Nesvacil, N.; Fokdal, L.U. Image-Guided Adaptive Brachytherapy (IGABT) for Primary Vaginal Cancer: Results of the International Multicenter RetroEMBRAVE Cohort Study. Cancers 2021, 13, 1459. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13061459

AMA Style

Westerveld H, Schmid MP, Nout RA, Chargari C, Pieters BR, Creutzberg CL, Sturdza A, Lindegaard JC, van Kesteren Z, Mazeron R, Nesvacil N, Fokdal LU. Image-Guided Adaptive Brachytherapy (IGABT) for Primary Vaginal Cancer: Results of the International Multicenter RetroEMBRAVE Cohort Study. Cancers. 2021; 13(6):1459. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13061459

Chicago/Turabian Style

Westerveld, Henrike, Maximilian P. Schmid, Remi A. Nout, Cyrus Chargari, Bradley R. Pieters, Carien L. Creutzberg, Alina Sturdza, Jacob C. Lindegaard, Zdenko van Kesteren, Renaud Mazeron, Nicole Nesvacil, and Lars U. Fokdal. 2021. "Image-Guided Adaptive Brachytherapy (IGABT) for Primary Vaginal Cancer: Results of the International Multicenter RetroEMBRAVE Cohort Study" Cancers 13, no. 6: 1459. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13061459

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