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Targeting DNA Repair and Chromatin Crosstalk in Cancer Therapy
Article

Targeting CX3CR1 Suppresses the Fanconi Anemia DNA Repair Pathway and Synergizes with Platinum

1
Science for Life Laboratory, Department of Oncology and Pathology, Karolinska Institute, 171 21 Stockholm, Sweden
2
Kancera AB, Karolinska Science Park, 171 48 Solna, Sweden
3
Oncode Institute and Division of Molecular Pathology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, 1066CX Amsterdam, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Pierre-Marie Girard
Cancers 2021, 13(6), 1442; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13061442
Received: 24 February 2021 / Revised: 17 March 2021 / Accepted: 19 March 2021 / Published: 22 March 2021
Chemotherapeutics exerting their antiproliferative actions by introducing DNA crosslinks, such as platinum drugs, are used to treat numerous cancers. Unfortunately, their therapeutic potential is limited due to adverse side effects and acquired resistance, the latter often associated with enhanced DNA repair capacity. Thus, targeting DNA repair is a promising strategy to lower effective doses and associated side effects, and to restore sensitivity to treatment. The C-X3-C motif chemokine receptor 1 (CX3CR1) is an emerging anticancer target which expression correlates with worse overall survival in cancer patients undergoing DNA damaging treatments. Here we show for the first time that the clinical-phase small molecule inhibitor KAND567 targeting CX3CR1 augments the efficacy of DNA crosslinking chemotherapeutics in cancer cell lines, including platinum resistant models, by interference of the Fanconi anemia DNA repair pathway. Hence, the interplay between CX3CR1 and FA repair provides novel potential therapeutic opportunities in cancers treated with DNA crosslinking agents.
The C-X3-C motif chemokine receptor 1 (CX3CR1, fractalkine receptor) is associated with neoplastic transformation, inflammation, neurodegenerative diseases and aging, and the small molecule inhibitor KAND567 targeting CX3CR1 (CX3CR1i) is evaluated in clinical trials for acute systemic inflammation upon SARS-CoV-2 infections. Here we identify a hitherto unknown role of CX3CR1 in Fanconi anemia (FA) pathway mediated repair of DNA interstrand crosslinks (ICLs) in replicating cells. FA pathway activation triggers CX3CR1 nuclear localization which facilitates assembly of the key FA protein FANCD2 into foci. Interfering with CX3CR1 function upon ICL-induction results in inability of replicating cells to progress from S phase, replication fork stalling and impaired chromatin recruitment of key FA pathway factors. Consistent with defective FA repair, CX3CR1i results in increased levels of residual cisplatin-DNA adducts and decreased cell survival. Importantly, CX3CR1i synergizes with platinum agents in a nonreversible manner in proliferation assays including platinum resistant models. Taken together, our results reveal an unanticipated interplay between CX3CR1 and the FA pathway and show for the first time that a clinical-phase small molecule inhibitor targeting CX3CR1 might show benefit in improving responses to DNA crosslinking chemotherapeutics. View Full-Text
Keywords: CX3CR1; FANCD2; replication; Fanconi anemia pathway; KAND567 CX3CR1; FANCD2; replication; Fanconi anemia pathway; KAND567
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lehto, J.; Huguet Ninou, A.; Chioureas, D.; Jonkers, J.; Gustafsson, N.M.S. Targeting CX3CR1 Suppresses the Fanconi Anemia DNA Repair Pathway and Synergizes with Platinum. Cancers 2021, 13, 1442. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13061442

AMA Style

Lehto J, Huguet Ninou A, Chioureas D, Jonkers J, Gustafsson NMS. Targeting CX3CR1 Suppresses the Fanconi Anemia DNA Repair Pathway and Synergizes with Platinum. Cancers. 2021; 13(6):1442. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13061442

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lehto, Jemina, Anna Huguet Ninou, Dimitrios Chioureas, Jos Jonkers, and Nina M.S. Gustafsson 2021. "Targeting CX3CR1 Suppresses the Fanconi Anemia DNA Repair Pathway and Synergizes with Platinum" Cancers 13, no. 6: 1442. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13061442

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