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Open AccessArticle

Boosted EfficientNet: Detection of Lymph Node Metastases in Breast Cancer Using Convolutional Neural Networks

1
Department of Informatics, King’s College London, London WC2R 2LS, UK
2
College of Management, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060, China
3
Department of Mathematics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
4
Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Maggie Chon U Cheang
Cancers 2021, 13(4), 661; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13040661
Received: 20 November 2020 / Revised: 30 January 2021 / Accepted: 3 February 2021 / Published: 7 February 2021
The assistance of computer image analysis that automatically identifies tissue or cell types has greatly improved histopathologic interpretation and diagnosis accuracy. In this paper, the Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) has been adapted to predict and classify lymph node metastasis in breast cancer. We observe that image resolutions of lymph node metastasis datasets in breast cancer usually are quite smaller than the designed model input resolution, which defects the performance of the proposed model. To mitigate this problem, we propose a boosted CNN architecture and a novel data augmentation method called Random Center Cropping (RCC). Different from traditional image cropping methods only suitable for resolution images in large scale, RCC not only enlarges the scale of datasets but also preserves the resolution and the center area of images. In addition, the downsampling scale of the network is diminished to be more suitable for small resolution images. Furthermore, we introduce attention and feature fusion mechanisms to enhance the semantic information of image features extracted by CNN. Experiments illustrate that our methods significantly boost performance of fundamental CNN architectures, where the best-performed method achieves an accuracy of 97.96% ± 0.03% and an Area Under the Curve (AUC) of 99.68% ± 0.01% in Rectified Patch Camelyon (RPCam) datasets, respectively.
(1) Purpose: To improve the capability of EfficientNet, including developing a cropping method called Random Center Cropping (RCC) to retain the original image resolution and significant features on the images’ center area, reducing the downsampling scale of EfficientNet to facilitate the small resolution images of RPCam datasets, and integrating attention and Feature Fusion (FF) mechanisms with EfficientNet to obtain features containing rich semantic information. (2) Methods: We adopt the Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) to detect and classify lymph node metastasis in breast cancer. (3) Results: Experiments illustrate that our methods significantly boost performance of basic CNN architectures, where the best-performed method achieves an accuracy of 97.96% ± 0.03% and an Area Under the Curve (AUC) of 99.68% ± 0.01% on RPCam datasets, respectively. (4) Conclusions: (1) To our limited knowledge, we are the only study to explore the power of EfficientNet on Metastatic Breast Cancer (MBC) classification, and elaborate experiments are conducted to compare the performance of EfficientNet with other state-of-the-art CNN models. It might provide inspiration for researchers who are interested in image-based diagnosis using Deep Learning (DL). (2) We design a novel data augmentation method named RCC to promote the data enrichment of small resolution datasets. (3) All of our four technological improvements boost the performance of the original EfficientNet. View Full-Text
Keywords: diagnosis; metastatic breast cancer; CNN; image classification; feature fusion diagnosis; metastatic breast cancer; CNN; image classification; feature fusion
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MDPI and ACS Style

Wang, J.; Liu, Q.; Xie, H.; Yang, Z.; Zhou, H. Boosted EfficientNet: Detection of Lymph Node Metastases in Breast Cancer Using Convolutional Neural Networks. Cancers 2021, 13, 661. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13040661

AMA Style

Wang J, Liu Q, Xie H, Yang Z, Zhou H. Boosted EfficientNet: Detection of Lymph Node Metastases in Breast Cancer Using Convolutional Neural Networks. Cancers. 2021; 13(4):661. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13040661

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wang, Jun; Liu, Qianying; Xie, Haotian; Yang, Zhaogang; Zhou, Hefeng. 2021. "Boosted EfficientNet: Detection of Lymph Node Metastases in Breast Cancer Using Convolutional Neural Networks" Cancers 13, no. 4: 661. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13040661

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