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Review

Experimental Models for Studying HPV-Positive and HPV-Negative Penile Cancer: New Tools for An Old Disease

1
Centre for the Research and Technology of Agro-Environmental and Biological Sciences (CITAB), University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro, UTAD, 5001-801 Vila Real, Portugal
2
Instituto de Patología e Investigación and Universidad Nacional de Asunción, Asunción, Paraguay
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Maranhão Tumour and DNA Biobank (BTMA), Post-graduate Programme in Adult Health (PPGSAD), Federal University of Maranhão (UFMA), São Luís 65080-805, Brazil
4
Veterinary Sciences Department, University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro, UTAD, 5000-801 Vila Real, Portugal
5
Molecular Oncology and Viral Pathology Group, CI-IPOP, IPO-Porto, 4200-072 Porto, Portugal
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Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, 4200-319 Porto, Portugal
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Virology Service, IPO-Porto, 4200-072 Porto, Portugal
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Biomedicine Research Center (CEBIMED), Faculty of Health Sciences, Fernando Pessoa University, 4249-004 Porto, Portugal
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Laboratory for Process Engineering, Environment, Biotechnology and Energy (LEPABE), Faculty of Engineering, University of Porto, 4200-465 Porto, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Giuseppe Di Lorenzo
Cancers 2021, 13(3), 460; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13030460
Received: 5 December 2020 / Revised: 11 January 2021 / Accepted: 23 January 2021 / Published: 26 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Basic and Translational Research on HPV-Related Malignancies)
Penile cancer is an uncommon and understudied malignancy that is most commonly diagnosed in developing countries. Therapeutic advances have been slow, in part due to the lack of in vitro and in vivo models for testing new drugs before performing clinical trials. Recently, this difficulty has been partly overcome and multiple new pre-clinical models were reported. These important developments will help develop new therapies for penile cancer patients. The present review summarizes and discusses the available data concerning the pre-clinical models of penile cancer and their uses. Comparisons are drawn between different models, allowing researchers to choose the most adequate setting for their experiments. The remaining gaps in this array of penile cancer models are also discussed, in particular the lack of models for studying metastatic disease and cell lines representing tumors associated with human papillomavirus.
Penile cancer is an uncommon malignancy that occurs most frequently in developing countries. Two pathways for penile carcinogenesis are currently recognized: one driven by human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and another HPV-independent route, associated with chronic inflammation. Progress on the clinical management of this disease has been slow, partly due to the lack of preclinical models for translational research. However, exciting recent developments are changing this landscape, with new in vitro and in vivo models becoming available. These include mouse models for HPV+ and HPV penile cancer and multiple cell lines representing HPV lesions. The present review addresses these new advances, summarizing available models, comparing their characteristics and potential uses and discussing areas that require further improvement. Recent breakthroughs achieved using these models are also discussed, particularly those developments pertaining to HPV-driven cancer. Two key aspects that still require improvement are the establishment of cell lines that can represent HPV+ penile carcinomas and the development of mouse models to study metastatic disease. Overall, the growing array of in vitro and in vivo models for penile cancer provides new and useful tools for researchers in the field and is expected to accelerate pre-clinical research on this disease. View Full-Text
Keywords: penile cancer; HPV; animal model; mouse model; cell line penile cancer; HPV; animal model; mouse model; cell line
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MDPI and ACS Style

Medeiros-Fonseca, B.; Cubilla, A.; Brito, H.; Martins, T.; Medeiros, R.; Oliveira, P.; Gil da Costa, R.M. Experimental Models for Studying HPV-Positive and HPV-Negative Penile Cancer: New Tools for An Old Disease. Cancers 2021, 13, 460. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13030460

AMA Style

Medeiros-Fonseca B, Cubilla A, Brito H, Martins T, Medeiros R, Oliveira P, Gil da Costa RM. Experimental Models for Studying HPV-Positive and HPV-Negative Penile Cancer: New Tools for An Old Disease. Cancers. 2021; 13(3):460. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13030460

Chicago/Turabian Style

Medeiros-Fonseca, Beatriz, Antonio Cubilla, Haissa Brito, Tânia Martins, Rui Medeiros, Paula Oliveira, and Rui M. Gil da Costa 2021. "Experimental Models for Studying HPV-Positive and HPV-Negative Penile Cancer: New Tools for An Old Disease" Cancers 13, no. 3: 460. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13030460

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