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Systematic Review

Long-Term Nightshift Work and Breast Cancer Risk: An Updated Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis with Special Attention to Menopausal Status and to Recent Nightshift Work

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Public Health and Preventive Medicine Teaching Unit, National School of Public Health, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Avda. Monforte de Lemos 5, 28029 Madrid, Spain
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Medicine and Health Sciences, Universidad del Rosario, Calle 12C No 6-25, Bogotá D.C. 111221, Colombia
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Department of Epidemiology of Chronic Diseases, National Centre for Epidemiology, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Avda. Monforte de Lemos 5, 28029 Madrid, Spain
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Consortium for Biomedical Research in Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBER en Epidemiología y Salud Pública—CIBERESP), 28029 Madrid, Spain
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Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, School of Medicine, University Granada, Avda. de la Investigación No 11, 18016 Granada, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Cancers 2021, 13(23), 5952; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13235952
Received: 6 October 2021 / Revised: 13 November 2021 / Accepted: 22 November 2021 / Published: 26 November 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Systematic Review or Meta-Analysis in Cancer Research)
Night shift work (NSW) may disturb circadian rhythms. This could influence the risk of breast cancer (BC), but research papers have reported conflicting results. We reviewed, summarized, and combined the results of those studies that measured the effect of long-term nightshift work (≥15 years of NSW) in BC with special attention to menopausal status and time since retirement age. Women with long-term NSW had 13% more risk of BC than women without NSW. Postmenopausal women showed no increased risk, while premenopausal women had a 27% higher risk. Women with a higher probability of recent long-term NSW (women under retirement age) had a 23% higher risk than women without NSW. We concluded that long-term NSW may increase BC risk, especially in women before menopause or shortly after NSW discontinuation.
This systematic review discusses long-term NSW and female BC risk, with special attention to differences between pre- and postmenopausal BC, to test the association with recent NSW. The review follows PRISMA guidelines (Prospero registry: CRD42018102515). We searched PubMed, Embase, and WOS for case–control, nested case–control, and cohort studies addressing long-term NSW (≥15 years) as risk exposure and female BC as outcome until 31 December 2020. Risk of bias was evaluated with the Newcastle–Ottawa scale. Eighteen studies were finally included (eight cohorts; five nested case–control; five case–control). We performed meta-analyses on long-term NSW and BC risk; overall and by menopausal status; a subanalysis on recent long-term NSW, based on studies involving predominantly women below retirement age; and a dose–response meta-analysis on NSW duration. The pooled estimate for long-term NSW and BC was 1.13 (95%CI = 1.01–1.27; 18 studies, I2 = 56.8%, p = 0.002). BC risk increased 4.7% per 10 years of NSW (95%CI = 0.94–1.09; 16 studies, I2 = 33.4%, p = 0.008). The pooled estimate for premenopausal BC was 1.27 (95%CI = 0.96–1.68; six studies, I2 = 32.0%, p = 0.196) and for postmenopausal BC 1.05 (95%CI = 0.90–1.24,I2 = 52.4%; seven studies, p = 0.050). For recent long-term exposure, the pooled estimate was 1.23 (95%CI = 1.06–1.42; 15 studies; I2 = 48.4%, p = 0.018). Our results indicate that long-term NSW increases the risk for BC and that menopausal status and time since exposure might be relevant. View Full-Text
Keywords: nightshift work; breast cancer; recent exposure; meta-analysis; menopausal status; occupational exposure; retirement age nightshift work; breast cancer; recent exposure; meta-analysis; menopausal status; occupational exposure; retirement age
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MDPI and ACS Style

Schwarz, C.; Pedraza-Flechas, A.M.; Pastor-Barriuso, R.; Lope, V.; de Larrea, N.F.; Jiménez-Moleón, J.J.; Pollán, M.; Pérez-Gómez, B. Long-Term Nightshift Work and Breast Cancer Risk: An Updated Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis with Special Attention to Menopausal Status and to Recent Nightshift Work. Cancers 2021, 13, 5952. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13235952

AMA Style

Schwarz C, Pedraza-Flechas AM, Pastor-Barriuso R, Lope V, de Larrea NF, Jiménez-Moleón JJ, Pollán M, Pérez-Gómez B. Long-Term Nightshift Work and Breast Cancer Risk: An Updated Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis with Special Attention to Menopausal Status and to Recent Nightshift Work. Cancers. 2021; 13(23):5952. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13235952

Chicago/Turabian Style

Schwarz, Christine, Ana M. Pedraza-Flechas, Roberto Pastor-Barriuso, Virginia Lope, Nerea F. de Larrea, José J. Jiménez-Moleón, Marina Pollán, and Beatriz Pérez-Gómez. 2021. "Long-Term Nightshift Work and Breast Cancer Risk: An Updated Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis with Special Attention to Menopausal Status and to Recent Nightshift Work" Cancers 13, no. 23: 5952. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13235952

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