Next Article in Journal
Dysbiosis Triggers ACF Development in Genetically Predisposed Subjects
Next Article in Special Issue
Patterns of Response to Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors in Association with Genomic and Clinical Features in Patients with Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma (HNSCC)
Previous Article in Journal
The Taming of Nuclear Factor Erythroid-2-Related Factor-2 (Nrf2) Deglycation by Fructosamine-3-Kinase (FN3K)-Inhibitors-A Novel Strategy to Combat Cancers
Previous Article in Special Issue
Functional T Cell Reactivity to Melanocyte Antigens Is Lost during the Progression of Malignant Melanoma, but Is Restored by Immunization
Article

The Search for an Interesting Partner to Combine with PD-L1 Blockade in Mesothelioma: Focus on TIM-3 and LAG-3

1
Center for Oncological Research (CORE), Integrated Personalized and Precision Oncology Network (IPPON), University of Antwerp, 2610 Wilrijk, Belgium
2
Department of Pathology, Antwerp University Hospital, 2650 Edegem, Belgium
3
Department of Pulmonology & Thoracic Oncology, Antwerp University Hospital, 2650 Edegem, Belgium
4
National Centre for Asbestos Related Diseases (NCARD), Perth 6008, Australia
5
School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Western Australia, Perth 6008, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors equally contributed to this paper.
Cancers 2021, 13(2), 282; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13020282
Received: 6 November 2020 / Revised: 6 January 2021 / Accepted: 11 January 2021 / Published: 14 January 2021
Malignant pleural mesothelioma is an aggressive cancer most commonly associated with asbestos exposure. Its prognosis is very poor, and the current treatments have only a limited impact on survival. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop new treatment strategies. We investigated combinations of different immune checkpoint blocking antibodies that have already shown promising results in several cancer types. We suggested that the effect of a combination treatment might even be better than one, single therapy. Based on our in vitro results about the secretion of several immune related molecules we selected promising treatments for further investigation in a mesothelioma mouse model. We found that monotherapy with an immune checkpoint blocking antibody against programmed death-1 (PD-1), and its combination with another blocking antibody against lymphocyte activation gene-3 (LAG-3), resulted in delayed tumor growth and survival benefit in our mice. Further research is warranted to optimize the treatment schedule of the combination therapy.
Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an aggressive cancer that is causally associated with previous asbestos exposure in most afflicted patients. The prognosis of patients remains dismal, with a median overall survival of only 9–12 months, due to the limited effectiveness of any conventional anti-cancer treatment. New therapeutic strategies are needed to complement the limited armamentarium against MPM. We decided to focus on the combination of different immune checkpoint (IC) blocking antibodies (Abs). Programmed death-1 (PD-1), programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1), T-cell immunoglobulin mucin-3 (TIM-3), and lymphocyte activation gene-3 (LAG-3) blocking Abs were tested as monotherapies, and as part of a combination strategy with a second IC inhibitor. We investigated their effect in vitro by examining the changes in the immune-related cytokine secretion profile of supernatant collected from treated allogeneic MPM-peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) co-cultures. Based on our in vitro results of cytokine secretion, and flow cytometry data that showed a significant upregulation of PD-L1 on PBMC after co-culture, we chose to further investigate the combinations of anti PD-L1 + anti TIM-3 versus anti PD-L1 + anti LAG-3 therapies in vivo in the AB1-HA BALB/cJ mesothelioma mouse model. PD-L1 monotherapy, as well as its combination with LAG-3 blockade, resulted in in-vivo delayed tumor growth and significant survival benefit. View Full-Text
Keywords: immune checkpoints; mesothelioma; in vitro; in vivo; TIM-3; LAG-3; PD-1; PD-L1 immune checkpoints; mesothelioma; in vitro; in vivo; TIM-3; LAG-3; PD-1; PD-L1
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Marcq, E.; Van Audenaerde, J.R.M.; De Waele, J.; Merlin, C.; Pauwels, P.; van Meerbeeck, J.P.; Fisher, S.A.; Smits, E.L.J. The Search for an Interesting Partner to Combine with PD-L1 Blockade in Mesothelioma: Focus on TIM-3 and LAG-3. Cancers 2021, 13, 282. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13020282

AMA Style

Marcq E, Van Audenaerde JRM, De Waele J, Merlin C, Pauwels P, van Meerbeeck JP, Fisher SA, Smits ELJ. The Search for an Interesting Partner to Combine with PD-L1 Blockade in Mesothelioma: Focus on TIM-3 and LAG-3. Cancers. 2021; 13(2):282. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13020282

Chicago/Turabian Style

Marcq, Elly, Jonas R.M. Van Audenaerde, Jorrit De Waele, Céline Merlin, Patrick Pauwels, Jan P. van Meerbeeck, Scott A. Fisher, and Evelien L.J. Smits. 2021. "The Search for an Interesting Partner to Combine with PD-L1 Blockade in Mesothelioma: Focus on TIM-3 and LAG-3" Cancers 13, no. 2: 282. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13020282

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop