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Adolescent and Young Adult (AYA) Cancer Survivorship Practices: An Overview
Review

The Burden of Late Effects and Related Risk Factors in Adolescent and Young Adult Cancer Survivors: A Scoping Review

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Cancer Care Alberta, Alberta Health Services, Holy Cross Centre, Department of Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention Research, 5th Floor, BOX ACB, 2210-2 St. SW, Calgary, AB T2S 3C3, Canada
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Health Sciences Centre 3A, Department of Pediatrics, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, ON L8S 4K1, Canada
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Department of Pediatrics, Division of Hematology/Oncology, The Hospital for Sick Children, 555 University Avenue, Toronto, ON M5G 1X8, Canada
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Department of Pediatrics, Edmonton Clinic Health Academy, University of Alberta, 11405-87 Avenue, Edmonton, AL T6G 1C9, Canada
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Departments of Oncology and Community Health Sciences, University of Calgary, 2500 University Dr. NW, Calgary, AB T2N 1N4, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Olga Husson and Winette T. A. van der Graaf
Cancers 2021, 13(19), 4870; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13194870
Received: 18 August 2021 / Revised: 18 September 2021 / Accepted: 22 September 2021 / Published: 28 September 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adolescent and Young Adult Oncology)
It is unclear what the risk of negative health outcomes is after cancer during adolescence and young adulthood. We conducted a review to understand the risk of second cancers, chronic conditions, and death in adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer survivors and found factors that increase the risk. In total, 652 studies were identified, of which 106 were included in the review: 23 for second cancers, 34 for chronic conditions, and 54 for deaths. The number of included studies increased over time, from four studies in 2010 to 17 in 2020. The studies found that AYA cancer survivors are at an increased risk of second cancers, chronic conditions, and deaths. In particular, the following factors increased risk: radiation exposure for second cancers; younger attained age and earlier calendar period of diagnosis for chronic conditions; and non-Hispanic Black or Hispanic, low socioeconomic status, and earlier calendar period of diagnosis for deaths.
Risk factors associated with late effects in survivors of adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer are poorly understood. We conducted a systematic scoping review to identify cohort studies published in English from 2010–2020 that included: (1) cancer survivors who were AYAs (age 15–39 years) at diagnosis and (2) outcomes of subsequent malignant neoplasms (SMNs), chronic conditions, and/or late mortality (>5 years postdiagnosis). There were 652 abstracts identified and, ultimately, 106 unique studies were included, of which 23, 34, and 54 studies related to the risk of SMNs, chronic conditions, and mortality, respectively. Studies investigating late effects among survivors of any primary cancer reported that AYA cancer survivors were at higher risk of SMN, chronic conditions, and all-cause mortality compared to controls. There was an indication that the following factors increased risk: radiation exposure (n = 3) for SMNs; younger attained age (n = 4) and earlier calendar period of diagnosis (n = 3) for chronic conditions; and non-Hispanic Black or Hispanic (n = 5), low socioeconomic status (n = 3), and earlier calendar period of diagnosis (n = 4) for late mortality. More studies including the full AYA age spectrum, treatment data, and results stratified by age, sex, and cancer type are needed to advance knowledge about late effects in AYA cancer survivors. View Full-Text
Keywords: adolescent and young adult; cancer survivors; mortality; chronic disease; second malignant neoplasm adolescent and young adult; cancer survivors; mortality; chronic disease; second malignant neoplasm
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ryder-Burbidge, C.; Diaz, R.L.; Barr, R.D.; Gupta, S.; Nathan, P.C.; McKillop, S.J.; Fidler-Benaoudia, M.M. The Burden of Late Effects and Related Risk Factors in Adolescent and Young Adult Cancer Survivors: A Scoping Review. Cancers 2021, 13, 4870. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13194870

AMA Style

Ryder-Burbidge C, Diaz RL, Barr RD, Gupta S, Nathan PC, McKillop SJ, Fidler-Benaoudia MM. The Burden of Late Effects and Related Risk Factors in Adolescent and Young Adult Cancer Survivors: A Scoping Review. Cancers. 2021; 13(19):4870. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13194870

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ryder-Burbidge, Charlotte, Ruth L. Diaz, Ronald D. Barr, Sumit Gupta, Paul C. Nathan, Sarah J. McKillop, and Miranda M. Fidler-Benaoudia. 2021. "The Burden of Late Effects and Related Risk Factors in Adolescent and Young Adult Cancer Survivors: A Scoping Review" Cancers 13, no. 19: 4870. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13194870

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