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Long-Term Outcomes and Causes of Death among Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma Patients with Distant Metastases

Division of Endocrinology & Metabolism, Department of Medicine, Thyroid Center, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul 06351, Korea
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Academic Editor: Kennichi Kakudo
Cancers 2021, 13(18), 4670; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13184670
Received: 28 July 2021 / Revised: 3 September 2021 / Accepted: 16 September 2021 / Published: 17 September 2021
The prognostic significance of metastatic sites, and immediate cause of death in MTC patients with distant metastasis remains unclear. In this study, we calculated the time from metastasis to death, and we found that long-term oncologic outcomes were differ from initial metastatic site; the hazard ratio for bone metastatic sites (HR: 5.42; p = 0.044) and multisite metastasis (HR: 6.11; p = 0.006) were significantly higher than for lung metastasis. Complications due to the progression of distant metastasis were the most common cause of death, followed by complications related to chemotherapy and airway obstruction.
Distant metastasis is a poor prognostic factor in medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), but the significance of differentiating the characteristics according to the site of distant metastasis remains unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical characteristics and long-term oncologic outcomes in MTC patients with distant metastasis. We identified 46 MTC patients with distant metastasis between 1994 and 2019. Clinical characteristics were compared based on the timing of the detection of distant metastasis. Additionally, survival rates following the detection of distant metastasis were evaluated to compare the clinical significance of metastatic site. The detailed causes of death were also investigated. Of the 46 patients, 15 patients (32.6%) had synchronous distant metastasis and 31 patients (67.4%) had metachronous distant metastasis. There was no clinical difference between these two groups except regarding initial surgical extent. The lung (52.2%) was the most common metastatic site, followed by the bone (28.3%), mediastinum (19.6%), liver (17.4%), adrenal gland (4.3%), brain (4.3%), kidney (2.2%), and pancreas (2.2%). Patients with bone metastasis and multisite metastasis had significantly worse prognoses than those with lung metastasis (hazard ratio: 5.42; p = 0.044 and hazard ratio: 6.11; p = 0.006). Complications due to the progression of distant metastasis, airway obstruction due to tracheal invasion, and complications related to chemotherapy were leading causes of death. In conclusion, there was no difference in clinical characteristics according to the timing of distant metastasis. Oncological outcomes differed by metastatic site. View Full-Text
Keywords: medullary thyroid carcinoma; distant metastasis; oncologic outcome; cause of death medullary thyroid carcinoma; distant metastasis; oncologic outcome; cause of death
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MDPI and ACS Style

Park, H.; Yang, H.; Heo, J.; Kim, T.H.; Kim, S.W.; Chung, J.H. Long-Term Outcomes and Causes of Death among Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma Patients with Distant Metastases. Cancers 2021, 13, 4670. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13184670

AMA Style

Park H, Yang H, Heo J, Kim TH, Kim SW, Chung JH. Long-Term Outcomes and Causes of Death among Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma Patients with Distant Metastases. Cancers. 2021; 13(18):4670. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13184670

Chicago/Turabian Style

Park, Hyunju, Heera Yang, Jung Heo, Tae H. Kim, Sun W. Kim, and Jae H. Chung 2021. "Long-Term Outcomes and Causes of Death among Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma Patients with Distant Metastases" Cancers 13, no. 18: 4670. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13184670

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