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Review

Challenges for Better Diagnosis and Management of Pancreatic and Biliary Tract Cancers Focusing on Blood Biomarkers: A Systematic Review

1
Division of Pharmacotherapeutics, Keio University Faculty of Pharmacy, 1-5-30 Shibakoen, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-8512, Japan
2
Department of Molecular and Cellular Medicine, Institute of Medical Science, Tokyo Medical University, 6-7-1 Nishishinjuku, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-0023, Japan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Takaya Shimura
Cancers 2021, 13(16), 4220; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13164220
Received: 25 July 2021 / Revised: 18 August 2021 / Accepted: 19 August 2021 / Published: 23 August 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Biomarkers of Gastrointestinal Cancer)
Pancreatic and biliary tract cancers are malignant tumors that have a very poor prognosis and are resistant to chemotherapy. The later a cancer is detected, the worse the prognosis becomes; therefore, early detection is important. Biomarkers are physiological indices that serve as a guide to indicate the presence or absence of a certain disease, or its progression. The purpose of our research is to summarize previously reported biomarkers for the diagnosis and prognosis of pancreatic and biliary tract cancers.
Background: pancreatic cancer (PCa) and biliary tract cancer (BTC) are cancers with a poor prognosis and few effective treatments. One of the reasons for this is late detection. Many researchers are tackling to develop non-invasive biomarkers for cancer, but few are specific for PCa or BTC. In addition, genetic abnormalities occur in cancer tissues, which ultimately affect the expression of various molecules. Therefore, it is important to identify molecules that are altered in PCa and BTC. For this systematic review, a systematic review of Medline and Embase to select biomarker studies of PCa and BTC patients was conducted. Results: after reviewing 72 studies, 79 biomarker candidates were identified, including 22 nucleic acids, 43 proteins, and 14 immune cell types. Of the 72 studies, 61 examined PCa, and 11 examined BTC. Conclusion: PCa and BTC are characterized by nucleic acid, protein, and immune cell profiles that are markedly different from those of healthy subjects. These altered molecules and cell subsets may serve as cancer-specific biomarkers, particularly in blood. Further studies are needed to better understand the diagnosis and prognosis of PCa and BTC. View Full-Text
Keywords: biomarker; chemoresistance; liquid biopsy; microRNA; long non-coding RNA biomarker; chemoresistance; liquid biopsy; microRNA; long non-coding RNA
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MDPI and ACS Style

Tominaga, H.; Matsuzaki, J.; Oikawa, C.; Toyoshima, K.; Manabe, H.; Ozawa, E.; Shimamura, A.; Yokoyama, R.; Serizawa, Y.; Ochiya, T.; Saito, Y. Challenges for Better Diagnosis and Management of Pancreatic and Biliary Tract Cancers Focusing on Blood Biomarkers: A Systematic Review. Cancers 2021, 13, 4220. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13164220

AMA Style

Tominaga H, Matsuzaki J, Oikawa C, Toyoshima K, Manabe H, Ozawa E, Shimamura A, Yokoyama R, Serizawa Y, Ochiya T, Saito Y. Challenges for Better Diagnosis and Management of Pancreatic and Biliary Tract Cancers Focusing on Blood Biomarkers: A Systematic Review. Cancers. 2021; 13(16):4220. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13164220

Chicago/Turabian Style

Tominaga, Hiroto, Juntaro Matsuzaki, Chihiro Oikawa, Kensho Toyoshima, Haruki Manabe, Eriko Ozawa, Atsushi Shimamura, Riko Yokoyama, Yusuke Serizawa, Takahiro Ochiya, and Yoshimasa Saito. 2021. "Challenges for Better Diagnosis and Management of Pancreatic and Biliary Tract Cancers Focusing on Blood Biomarkers: A Systematic Review" Cancers 13, no. 16: 4220. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13164220

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