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Low Levels of Urinary PSA Better Identify Prostate Cancer Patients

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Department of Molecular Biotechnologies and Health Sciences, University of Turin, 10126 Turin, Italy
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NIB Biotec srl, 10135 Turin, Italy
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Clinical Biochemistry Laboratory, Department of Laboratory Medicine, AOU Città della Salute e della Scienza di Torino, 10126 Turin, Italy
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Division of Urology, Department of Surgical Science, AOU Città della Salute e della Scienza di Torino, University of Turin, 10126 Turin, Italy
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Division of Pathology, AOU Città della Salute e della Scienza di Torino, 10126 Turin, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Channing Judith Paller and Pedro C. Barata
Cancers 2021, 13(14), 3570; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13143570
Received: 27 May 2021 / Revised: 9 July 2021 / Accepted: 13 July 2021 / Published: 16 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prevention and Early Detection of Prostate Cancer)
Elevated PSA levels in blood tests are the gold standard for early prostate cancer detection, but its lack of specificity limits its clinical use as a mass screening test. The paradox is that it has long been known that advanced prostate cancers can lose PSA expression. We have observed that in the presence of tumors, the prostate produces and secretes less PSA than in healthy or benign conditions. Therefore, the PSA evaluation in urine provided more accurate information on the presence of prostate tumors than the blood test, representing a new method for the screening of prostate cancer.
Serum prostatic specific antigen (PSA) has proven to have limited accuracy in early diagnosis and in making clinical decisions about different therapies for prostate cancer (PCa). This is partially due to the fact that an increase in PSA in the blood is due to the compromised architecture of the prostate, which is only observed in advanced cancer. On the contrary, PSA observed in the urine (uPSA) reflects the quantity produced by the prostate, and therefore can give more information about the presence of disease. We enrolled 574 men scheduled for prostate biopsy at the urology clinic, and levels of uPSA were evaluated. uPSA levels resulted lower among subjects with PCa when compared to patients with negative biopsies. An indirect correlation was observed between uPSA amount and the stage of disease. Loss of expression of PSA appears as a characteristic of prostate cancer development and its evaluation in urine represents an interesting approach for the early detection of the disease and the stratification of patients. View Full-Text
Keywords: prostate cancer prevention; prostate cancer detection; screening; biomarkers; diagnosis; early detection prostate cancer prevention; prostate cancer detection; screening; biomarkers; diagnosis; early detection
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MDPI and ACS Style

Occhipinti, S.; Mengozzi, G.; Oderda, M.; Zitella, A.; Molinaro, L.; Novelli, F.; Giovarelli, M.; Gontero, P. Low Levels of Urinary PSA Better Identify Prostate Cancer Patients. Cancers 2021, 13, 3570. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13143570

AMA Style

Occhipinti S, Mengozzi G, Oderda M, Zitella A, Molinaro L, Novelli F, Giovarelli M, Gontero P. Low Levels of Urinary PSA Better Identify Prostate Cancer Patients. Cancers. 2021; 13(14):3570. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13143570

Chicago/Turabian Style

Occhipinti, Sergio, Giulio Mengozzi, Marco Oderda, Andrea Zitella, Luca Molinaro, Francesco Novelli, Mirella Giovarelli, and Paolo Gontero. 2021. "Low Levels of Urinary PSA Better Identify Prostate Cancer Patients" Cancers 13, no. 14: 3570. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13143570

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