Next Article in Journal
Aspirin-Triggered Resolvin D1 Reduces Proliferation and the Neutrophil to Lymphocyte Ratio in a Mutant KRAS-Driven Lung Adenocarcinoma Model
Next Article in Special Issue
Major Oncogenic Drivers and Their Clinicopathological Correlations in Sporadic Childhood Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma in Belarus
Previous Article in Journal
An Insight into Pathophysiological Features and Therapeutic Advances on Ependymoma
Previous Article in Special Issue
Quercetin Induces Anticancer Activity by Upregulating Pro-NAG-1/GDF15 in Differentiated Thyroid Cancer Cells
Article

Simultaneous Expression of Long Non-Coding RNA FAL1 and Extracellular Matrix Protein 1 Defines Tumour Behaviour in Young Patients with Papillary Thyroid Cancer

1
Department of Internal Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 50-1 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 03722, Korea
2
Department of Surgery, Eulji University School of Medicine, 95 Dunsanseo-ro, Seo-gu, Daejeon 35233, Korea
3
Yonsei Cancer Center, Open NBI Convergence Technology Research Laboratory, Severance Hospital, Department of Surgery, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 50-1 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 03722, Korea
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editors: Chan-Kwon Jung and Andrey Bychkov
Cancers 2021, 13(13), 3223; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13133223
Received: 25 May 2021 / Revised: 21 June 2021 / Accepted: 23 June 2021 / Published: 28 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomarkers of Thyroid Cancer)
FAL1 upregulation has been reported in many types of human cancers. The up-regulatory mechanism was identified in ovarian cancer but was not investigated in other type of cancers. Using The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database, we identified simultaneous upregulation of FAL1 adjacent to chromosome 1q21.3. Among 53 putative transcription factors for FAL1 and neighbouring genes, we selected c-JUN and JUND as the best candidates. This simultaneous upregulation defines molecular biological features representing RAS-driven PTC-enriched immune-related gene sets. These findings suggest that the simultaneous upregulation might be a potential diagnostic and therapeutic target for RAS-driven PTC.
We investigated the regulatory mechanism of FAL1 and unravelled the molecular biological features of FAL1 upregulation in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). Correlation analyses of FAL1 and neighbouring genes adjacent to chromosome 1q21.3 were performed. Focal amplification was performed using data from copy number alterations in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. To identify putative transcriptional factors, PROMO and the Encyclopaedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) were used. To validate c-JUN and JUND as master transcription factors for FAL1 and ECM1, gene set enrichment analysis was performed according to FAL1 and ECM1 expression. Statistical analyses of the molecular biological features of FAL1- and ECM1-upregulated PTCs were conducted. FAL1 expression significantly correlated with that of neighbouring genes. Focal amplification of chromosome 1q21.3 was observed in ovarian cancer but not in thyroid carcinoma. However, PROMO suggested 53 transcription factors as putative common transcriptional factors for FAL1 and ECM1 simultaneously. Among them, we selected c-JUN and JUND as the best candidates based on ENCODE results. The expression of target genes of JUND simultaneously increased in FAL1- and ECM1-upregulated PTCs, especially in young patients. The molecular biological features represented RAS-driven PTC and simultaneously enriched immune-related gene sets. FAL1 and ECM1 expression frequently increased simultaneously and could be operated by JUND. The simultaneous upregulation might be a potential diagnostic and therapeutic target for RAS-driven PTC. View Full-Text
Keywords: FAL1; ECM1; thyroid neoplasm; prognosis; RAS; immunology FAL1; ECM1; thyroid neoplasm; prognosis; RAS; immunology
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Jeong, S.; Lee, S.-G.; Kim, H.; Lee, G.; Park, S.; Kim, I.-K.; Lee, J.; Jo, Y.-S. Simultaneous Expression of Long Non-Coding RNA FAL1 and Extracellular Matrix Protein 1 Defines Tumour Behaviour in Young Patients with Papillary Thyroid Cancer. Cancers 2021, 13, 3223. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13133223

AMA Style

Jeong S, Lee S-G, Kim H, Lee G, Park S, Kim I-K, Lee J, Jo Y-S. Simultaneous Expression of Long Non-Coding RNA FAL1 and Extracellular Matrix Protein 1 Defines Tumour Behaviour in Young Patients with Papillary Thyroid Cancer. Cancers. 2021; 13(13):3223. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13133223

Chicago/Turabian Style

Jeong, Seonhyang, Seul-Gi Lee, Hyunji Kim, Gibbeum Lee, Sunmi Park, In-Kyu Kim, Jandee Lee, and Young-Suk Jo. 2021. "Simultaneous Expression of Long Non-Coding RNA FAL1 and Extracellular Matrix Protein 1 Defines Tumour Behaviour in Young Patients with Papillary Thyroid Cancer" Cancers 13, no. 13: 3223. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13133223

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop