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Next-Generation Biomarkers for Cholangiocarcinoma

An Insight into Pathophysiological Features and Therapeutic Advances on Ependymoma

Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 03760, Korea
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Life Science Faculty, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, Science and Technology University, Gopalganj 8100, Bangladesh
Bio-Science Research Initiative, Gopalganj 8100, Bangladesh
ABEx Bio-Research Center, East Azampur, Dhaka 1230, Bangladesh
Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Chittagong, Chittagong 4331, Bangladesh
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editors: Donat Kögel and Nils Ole Schmidt
Cancers 2021, 13(13), 3221;
Received: 7 May 2021 / Revised: 21 June 2021 / Accepted: 23 June 2021 / Published: 28 June 2021
Although biological information and the molecular classification of ependymoma have been studied, the treatment systems for ependymoma are still insufficient. In addition, because the disease occurs infrequently, it is difficult to obtain sufficient data to conduct large-scale or randomized clinical trials. Therefore, this study is intended to emphasize the importance of understanding its pathological characteristics and prognosis as well as developing treatments for ependymoma through multilateral studies.
Glial cells comprise the non-sensory parts of the central nervous system as well as the peripheral nervous system. Glial cells, also known as neuroglia, constitute a significant portion of the mammalian nervous system and can be viewed simply as a matrix of neural cells. Despite being the “Nervenkitt” or “glue of the nerves”, they aptly serve multiple roles, including neuron repair, myelin sheath formation, and cerebrospinal fluid circulation. Ependymal cells are one of four kinds of glial cells that exert distinct functions. Tumorigenesis of a glial cell is termed a glioma, and in the case of an ependymal cell, it is called an ependymoma. Among the various gliomas, an ependymoma in children is one of the more challenging brain tumors to cure. Children are afflicted more severely by ependymal tumors than adults. It has appeared from several surveys that ependymoma comprises approximately six to ten percent of all tumors in children. Presently, the surgical removal of the tumor is considered a standard treatment for ependymomas. It has been conspicuously evident that a combination of irradiation therapy and surgery is much more efficacious in treating ependymomas. The main purpose of this review is to present the importance of both a deep understanding and ongoing research into histopathological features and prognoses of ependymomas to ensure that effective diagnostic methods and treatments can be developed. View Full-Text
Keywords: brain tumor; ependymoma; oncogene; tumor diagnosis; tumor treatment brain tumor; ependymoma; oncogene; tumor diagnosis; tumor treatment
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MDPI and ACS Style

Seo, S.-H.; Paul, S.K.; Shikder, M.; Khanam, M.; Ghosh, P.; Hasib, T.A.; Ahmed, K.A.; Sikdar, S.; Uddin, M.J.; Kwon, Y. An Insight into Pathophysiological Features and Therapeutic Advances on Ependymoma. Cancers 2021, 13, 3221.

AMA Style

Seo S-H, Paul SK, Shikder M, Khanam M, Ghosh P, Hasib TA, Ahmed KA, Sikdar S, Uddin MJ, Kwon Y. An Insight into Pathophysiological Features and Therapeutic Advances on Ependymoma. Cancers. 2021; 13(13):3221.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Seo, Seung-Hee, Shamrat K. Paul, Mita Shikder, Mushira Khanam, Popy Ghosh, Tasnin A. Hasib, Kazi A. Ahmed, Suranjana Sikdar, Md J. Uddin, and Youngjoo Kwon. 2021. "An Insight into Pathophysiological Features and Therapeutic Advances on Ependymoma" Cancers 13, no. 13: 3221.

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