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Review

Control of Tumor Progression by Angiocrine Factors

1
Division Vascular Signaling and Cancer, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
2
Faculty of Biosciences, University of Heidelberg, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
3
Department of Internal Medicine, Endocrinology and Clinical Chemistry, University of Heidelberg, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
4
European Center for Angioscience (ECAS), Medical Faculty Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, 68167 Mannheim, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Dan G. Duda
Cancers 2021, 13(11), 2610; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13112610
Received: 28 April 2021 / Revised: 21 May 2021 / Accepted: 21 May 2021 / Published: 26 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Trials of Cancer)
The growth of a solid malignant tumor mass depends on the formation of new blood vessels by endothelial cells. However, endothelial cells do not only provide conduits for blood transportation, but also express numerous factors which promote the aggressiveness of cancer cells, influence the immune response toward cancer cells and thereby contribute to tumor progression and metastasis. This Review provides a comprehensive overview about such angiocrine factors and how they orchestrate the tumor microenvironment.
Tumor progression, therapy resistance and metastasis are profoundly controlled by the tumor microenvironment. The contribution of endothelial cells to tumor progression was initially only attributed to the formation of new blood vessels (angiogenesis). Research in the last decade has revealed however that endothelial cells control their microenvironment through the expression of membrane-bound and secreted factors. Such angiocrine functions are frequently hijacked by cancer cells, which deregulate the signaling pathways controlling the expression of angiocrine factors. Here, we review the crosstalk between cancer cells and endothelial cells and how this contributes to the cancer stem cell phenotype, epithelial to mesenchymal transition, immunosuppression, remodeling of the extracellular matrix and intravasation of cancer cells into the bloodstream. We also address the long-distance crosstalk of a primary tumor with endothelial cells at the pre-metastatic niche and how this contributes to metastasis. View Full-Text
Keywords: angiocrine; blood vessels; endothelial cells; cancer; tumor progression; metastasis angiocrine; blood vessels; endothelial cells; cancer; tumor progression; metastasis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Alsina-Sanchis, E.; Mülfarth, R.; Fischer, A. Control of Tumor Progression by Angiocrine Factors. Cancers 2021, 13, 2610. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13112610

AMA Style

Alsina-Sanchis E, Mülfarth R, Fischer A. Control of Tumor Progression by Angiocrine Factors. Cancers. 2021; 13(11):2610. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13112610

Chicago/Turabian Style

Alsina-Sanchis, Elisenda; Mülfarth, Ronja; Fischer, Andreas. 2021. "Control of Tumor Progression by Angiocrine Factors" Cancers 13, no. 11: 2610. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13112610

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