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High-Risk Human Papillomavirus and Tobacco Smoke Interactions in Epithelial Carcinogenesis

1
Universidad de Tarapacá, Arica 1000000, Chile
2
Advanced Center for Chronic Diseases (ACCDiS), Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Chile, Santiago 8330024, Chile
3
Instituto de Alta Investigación, Universidad de Tarapacá, Arica 1000000, Chile
4
Laboratorio Oncovirología, Programa de Virología, Instituto de Ciencias Biomédicas, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Chile, Santiago 8380000, Chile
5
Center for Radiological Research, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY 10032, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Cancers 2020, 12(8), 2201; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12082201
Received: 3 June 2020 / Revised: 4 August 2020 / Accepted: 4 August 2020 / Published: 6 August 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Cancer Biology)
Cervical, anogenital, and some head and neck cancers (HNC) are etiologically associated with high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infection, even though additional cofactors are necessary. Epidemiological studies have established that tobacco smoke (TS) is a cofactor for cervical carcinogenesis because women who smoke are more susceptible to cervical cancer when compared to non-smokers. Even though such a relationship has not been established in HPV-related HNC, a group of HPV positive patients with this malignancy are smokers. TS is a complex mixture of more than 4500 chemical compounds and approximately 60 of them show oncogenic properties such as benzo[α]pyrene (BaP) and nitrosamines, among others. Some of these compounds have been evaluated for carcinogenesis through experimental settings in collaboration with HR-HPV. Here, we conducted a comprehensive review of the suggested molecular mechanisms involved in cooperation with both HR-HPV and TS for epithelial carcinogenesis. Furthermore, we propose interaction models in which TS collaborates with HR-HPV to promote epithelial cancer initiation, promotion, and progression. More studies are warranted to clarify interactions between oncogenic viruses and chemical or physical environmental factors for epithelial carcinogenesis. View Full-Text
Keywords: papillomavirus; tobacco; smoking; cancer; cervix papillomavirus; tobacco; smoking; cancer; cervix
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Aguayo, F.; Muñoz, J.P.; Perez-Dominguez, F.; Carrillo-Beltrán, D.; Oliva, C.; Calaf, G.M.; Blanco, R.; Nuñez-Acurio, D. High-Risk Human Papillomavirus and Tobacco Smoke Interactions in Epithelial Carcinogenesis. Cancers 2020, 12, 2201.

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