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Bone, a Secondary Growth Site of Breast and Prostate Carcinomas: Role of Osteocytes

by 1,*,† and 2,†
1
IRCCS Istituto Ortopedico Galeazzi, Laboratory of Experimental Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, Via R. Galeazzi 4, 20161 Milano, Italy
2
Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche per la Salute; Università degli Studi di Milano, Via L. Mangiagalli 31, 20133 Milano, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Joint first authors.
Cancers 2020, 12(7), 1812; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12071812
Received: 4 June 2020 / Revised: 30 June 2020 / Accepted: 1 July 2020 / Published: 6 July 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Tumor Microenvironment)
Bone is the primarily preferred site for breast and prostate cancer to metastasize. Bone metastases are responsible for most deaths related to breast and prostate cancer. The bone’s particular microenvironment makes it conducive for the growth of cancer cells. Studies on bone metastasis have focused on the interaction between cancer cells and the bone microenvironment. Osteocytes, the most common cell type of bone tissue, have received little attention in bone metastasis, although they are master signal sensors, integrators, and skeleton transducers. They play an important role in regulating bone mass by acting on both osteoblasts and osteoclasts, through the release of proteins such as sclerostin, Dickkopf-1 (DKK-1), and fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23). Osteocytes have been extensively re-evaluated, in light of their multiple functions: with different experimental approaches, it has been shown that, indeed, osteocytes are actively involved in the colonization of bone tissue by cancer cells. The present review focuses on recent research on the role that osteocytes play in bone metastasis of breast and prostate cancers. Moreover, the studies here summarized open up perspectives for new therapeutic approaches focused on modulating the activity of osteocytes to improve the condition of the bone metastatic patients. A better understanding of the complex interactions between cancer cells and bone-resident cells is indispensable for identifying potential therapeutic targets to stop tumor progression and prevent bone metastases. View Full-Text
Keywords: osteocytes; breast cancer; prostate cancer; bone metastasis; sclerostin; Dickkopf-1(DKK-1); fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) osteocytes; breast cancer; prostate cancer; bone metastasis; sclerostin; Dickkopf-1(DKK-1); fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23)
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MDPI and ACS Style

Maroni, P.; Bendinelli, P. Bone, a Secondary Growth Site of Breast and Prostate Carcinomas: Role of Osteocytes. Cancers 2020, 12, 1812. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12071812

AMA Style

Maroni P, Bendinelli P. Bone, a Secondary Growth Site of Breast and Prostate Carcinomas: Role of Osteocytes. Cancers. 2020; 12(7):1812. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12071812

Chicago/Turabian Style

Maroni, Paola, and Paola Bendinelli. 2020. "Bone, a Secondary Growth Site of Breast and Prostate Carcinomas: Role of Osteocytes" Cancers 12, no. 7: 1812. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12071812

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