Klotho was first discovered as an anti-ageing protein linked to a number of age-related disease processes, including cardiovascular, renal, musculoskeletal, and neurodegenerative conditions. Emerging research has also demonstrated a potential therapeutic role for Klotho in cancer biology, which is perhaps unsurprising given that cancer and ageing share similar molecular hallmarks. In addition to functioning as a tumour suppressor in numerous solid tumours and haematological malignancies, Klotho represents a candidate therapeutic target for patients with these diseases, the majority of whom have limited treatment options. Here, we examine contemporary evidence evaluating the anti-neoplastic effects of Klotho and describe the modulation of downstream oncogenic signalling pathways, including Wnt/β-catenin, FGF, IGF1, PIK3K/AKT, TGFβ, and the Unfolded Protein Response. We also discuss possible approaches to developing therapeutic Klotho and consider technological advances that may facilitate the delivery of Klotho through gene therapy.
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