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Open AccessArticle

Inflammatory Cytokines and ctDNA Are Biomarkers for Progression in Advanced-Stage Melanoma Patients Receiving Checkpoint Inhibitors

1
Department of Biomedicine, Faculty of Health, Aarhus University, 8000 Aarhus, Denmark
2
Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Aarhus University Hospital, 8000 Aarhus, Denmark
3
Department of Oncology, Aarhus University Hospital, 8000 Aarhus, Denmark
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors share first-authorships.
Cancers 2020, 12(6), 1414; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12061414
Received: 26 March 2020 / Revised: 26 May 2020 / Accepted: 27 May 2020 / Published: 30 May 2020
Purpose: Checkpoint inhibitors have significantly improved treatment of metastatic melanoma. However, 40–60% of patients do not respond to therapy, emphasizing the need for better predictive biomarkers for treatment response to immune checkpoint inhibitors. Prorammed death-ligand 1(PD-L1) expression in tumor cells is currently used as a predictive biomarker; however, it lacks specificity. Therefore, it is of utmost importance to identify other novel biomarkers that can predict treatment outcome. Experimental design: We studied a small cohort of 16 patients with advanced-stage melanoma treated with first-line checkpoint inhibitors. Plasma samples were collected prior to treatment initiation and continuously during the first year of treatment. Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) level and the expression of ten inflammatory cytokines were analyzed. Results: We found that the ctDNA-level in a blood sample collected after 6–8 weeks of therapy is predictive for response to checkpoint inhibitors. Patients with undetectable ctDNA had significantly longer progression-free survival (PFS) compared with patients with detectable ctDNA (median 26.3 vs. 2.1 months, p = 0.006). In parallel, we identified that high levels of the cytokines monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP1) and tumor necrosis factor α(TNFα) in baseline blood samples were significantly associated with longer PFS compared to low level of these cytokines (median not reached vs. 8.2 months p = 0.0008). Conclusions: These findings suggest that the levels of ctDNA, MCP1, and TNFα in baseline and early follow-up samples can predict disease progression in metastatic melanoma patients treated with checkpoint inhibitors. Potentially, these minimally invasive biomarkers may identify responders from non-responders. View Full-Text
Keywords: melanoma; biomarkers; cytokines; inflammation; immune checkpoint inhibitors melanoma; biomarkers; cytokines; inflammation; immune checkpoint inhibitors
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MDPI and ACS Style

Pedersen, J.G.; Madsen, A.T.; Gammelgaard, K.R.; Aggerholm-Pedersen, N.; Sørensen, B.S.; Øllegaard, T.H.; Jakobsen, M.R. Inflammatory Cytokines and ctDNA Are Biomarkers for Progression in Advanced-Stage Melanoma Patients Receiving Checkpoint Inhibitors. Cancers 2020, 12, 1414. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12061414

AMA Style

Pedersen JG, Madsen AT, Gammelgaard KR, Aggerholm-Pedersen N, Sørensen BS, Øllegaard TH, Jakobsen MR. Inflammatory Cytokines and ctDNA Are Biomarkers for Progression in Advanced-Stage Melanoma Patients Receiving Checkpoint Inhibitors. Cancers. 2020; 12(6):1414. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12061414

Chicago/Turabian Style

Pedersen, Jesper G.; Madsen, Anne T.; Gammelgaard, Kristine R.; Aggerholm-Pedersen, Ninna; Sørensen, Boe S.; Øllegaard, Trine H.; Jakobsen, Martin R. 2020. "Inflammatory Cytokines and ctDNA Are Biomarkers for Progression in Advanced-Stage Melanoma Patients Receiving Checkpoint Inhibitors" Cancers 12, no. 6: 1414. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12061414

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