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Open AccessReview

In Vitro Organotypic Systems to Model Tumor Microenvironment in Human Papillomavirus (HPV)-Related Cancers

1
Interdisciplinary Research Centre on Biomaterials (CRIB), University of Naples Federico II, 80125 Naples, Italy
2
Center for Advanced Biomaterials for [email protected], Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, 80125 Naples, Italy
3
Department of Chemical, Materials and Industrial Production Engineering (DICMAPI) University of Naples Federico II, 80125 Naples, Italy
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Cancers 2020, 12(5), 1150; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12051150
Received: 27 March 2020 / Revised: 30 April 2020 / Accepted: 1 May 2020 / Published: 3 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human Papillomavirus and Cancers)
Despite the well-known role of chronic human papillomavirus (HPV) infections in causing tumors (i.e., all cervical cancers and other human malignancies from the mucosal squamous epithelia, including anogenital and oropharyngeal cavity), its persistence is not sufficient for cancer development. Other co-factors contribute to the carcinogenesis process. Recently, the critical role of the underlying stroma during the HPV life cycle and HPV-induced disease have been investigated. The tumor stroma is a key component of the tumor microenvironment (TME), which is a specialized entity. The TME is dynamic, interactive, and constantly changing—able to trigger, support, and drive tumor initiation, progression, and metastasis. In previous years, in vitro organotypic raft cultures and in vivo genetically engineered mouse models have provided researchers with important information on the interactions between HPVs and the epithelium. Further development for an in-depth understanding of the interaction between HPV-infected tissue and the surrounding microenvironment is strongly required. In this review, we critically describe the HPV-related cancers modeled in vitro from the simplified ‘raft culture’ to complex three-dimensional (3D) organotypic models, focusing on HPV-associated cervical cancer disease platforms. In addition, we review the latest knowledge in the field of in vitro culture systems of HPV-associated malignancies of other mucosal squamous epithelia (anogenital and oropharynx), as well as rare cutaneous non-melanoma associated cancer. View Full-Text
Keywords: human papillomaviruses (HPVs)-related cancers; tumor microenvironment (TME); 3D organotypic models; cervical cancers; anogenital cancers; oropharynx cancers human papillomaviruses (HPVs)-related cancers; tumor microenvironment (TME); 3D organotypic models; cervical cancers; anogenital cancers; oropharynx cancers
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MDPI and ACS Style

De Gregorio, V.; Urciuolo, F.; Netti, P.A.; Imparato, G. In Vitro Organotypic Systems to Model Tumor Microenvironment in Human Papillomavirus (HPV)-Related Cancers. Cancers 2020, 12, 1150.

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