Arginine-specific mono-adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-ribosylation is a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)+
-dependent, reversible post-translational modification involving the transfer of an ADP-ribose from NAD+
by bacterial toxins and eukaryotic ADP-ribosyltransferases (ARTs) to arginine on an acceptor protein or peptide. ADP-ribosylarginine hydrolase 1 (ARH1) catalyzes the cleavage of the ADP-ribose-arginine bond, regenerating (arginine)protein. Arginine-specific mono-ADP-ribosylation catalyzed by bacterial toxins was first identified as a mechanism of disease pathogenesis. Cholera toxin ADP-ribosylates and activates the α subunit of Gαs, a guanine nucleotide-binding protein that stimulates adenylyl cyclase activity, increasing cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), and resulting in fluid and electrolyte loss. Arginine-specific mono-ADP-ribosylation in mammalian cells has potential roles in membrane repair, immunity, and cancer. In mammalian tissues, ARH1 is a cytosolic protein that is ubiquitously expressed. ARH1 deficiency increased tumorigenesis in a gender-specific manner. In the myocardium, in response to cellular injury, an arginine-specific mono-ADP-ribosylation cycle, involving ART1 and ARH1, regulated the level and cellular distribution of ADP-ribosylated tripartite motif-containing protein 72 (TRIM72). Confirmed substrates of ARH1 in vivo are Gαs and TRIM72, however, more than a thousand proteins, ADP-ribosylated on arginine, have been identified by proteomic analysis. This review summarizes the current understanding of the properties of ARH1, e.g., bacterial toxin action, myocardial membrane repair following injury, and tumorigenesis.
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