Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) 1 is an essential molecule in DNA damage response by sensing DNA damage and docking DNA repair proteins on the damaged DNA site through a type of posttranslational modification, poly (ADP-Ribosyl)ation (PARylation). PARP inhibitors, which inhibit PARylation through competitively binding to NAD+ binding site of PARP1 and PARP2, have improved clinical benefits for BRCA mutated tumors, leading to their accelerated clinical application. However, the antitumor activities of PARP inhibitors in clinical development are different, due to PARP trapping activity beyond blocking PARylation reactions. In this review, we comprehensively address the current state of knowledge regarding the mechanisms of action of PARP inhibitors. We will also discuss the different effects of PARP inhibitors in combination with cytotoxic chemotherapeutic agents regarding the mechanism of regulating PARylation.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited