Reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced during intracellular metabolism or triggered by extrinsic factors can promote neoplastic transformation and malignant microenvironment that mediate tumor development. Oligo-Fucoidan is a sulfated polysaccharide isolated from the brown seaweed. Using human THP-1 monocytes and murine Raw264.7 macrophages as well as human HCT116 colorectal cancer cells, primary C6P2-L1 colorectal cancer cells and human MDA-MB231 breast cancer cells, we investigated the effect of Oligo-Fucoidan on inhibiting M2 macrophage differentiation and its therapeutic potential as a supplement in chemotherapy and tumor prevention. We now demonstrate that Oligo-Fucoidan is an antioxidant that suppresses intracellular ROS and mitochondrial superoxide levels in monocytes/macrophages and in aggressive cancer cells. Comparable to ROS inhibitors (DPI and NAC), Oligo-Fucoidan directly induced monocyte polarization toward M1-like macrophages and repolarized M2 macrophages into M1 phenotypes. DPI and Oligo-Fucoidan also cooperatively prevented M2 macrophage invasiveness. Indirectly, M1 polarity was advanced particularly when DPI suppressed ROS generation and supplemented with Oligo-Fucoidan in the cancer cells. Moreover, cisplatin chemoagent polarized monocytes and M0 macrophages toward M2-like phenotypes and Oligo-Fucoidan supplementation reduced these side effects. Furthermore, Oligo-Fucoidan promoted cytotoxicity of cisplatin and antagonized cisplatin effect on cancer cells to prevent M2 macrophage differentiation. More importantly, Oligo-Fucoidan inhibited tumor progression and M2 macrophage infiltration in tumor microenvironment, thus increasing of anti-tumor immunity.
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