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Open AccessReview

Wnt and Vitamin D at the Crossroads in Solid Cancer

1
Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas “Alberto Sols”, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28029 Madrid, Spain
2
Departamento de Bioquímica, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28029 Madrid, Spain
3
Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Cáncer (CIBERONC), 28029 Madrid, Spain
4
Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria del Hospital Universitario La Paz—IdiPAZ (Hospital Universitario La Paz—Universidad Autónoma de Madrid), 28029 Madrid, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Cancers 2020, 12(11), 3434; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12113434
Received: 29 October 2020 / Revised: 16 November 2020 / Accepted: 17 November 2020 / Published: 19 November 2020
The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is aberrantly activated in most colorectal cancers and less frequently in a variety of other solid neoplasias. Many epidemiological and experimental studies and some clinical trials suggest an anticancer action of vitamin D, mainly against colorectal cancer. The aim of this review was to analyze the literature supporting the interference of Wnt/β-catenin signaling by the active vitamin D metabolite 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. We discuss the molecular mechanisms of this antagonism in colorectal cancer and other cancer types. Additionally, we summarize the available data indicating a reciprocal inhibition of vitamin D action by the activated Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Thus, a complex mutual antagonism between Wnt/β-catenin signaling and the vitamin D system seems to be at the root of many solid cancers.
Abnormal activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway is common in many types of solid cancers. Likewise, a large proportion of cancer patients have vitamin D deficiency. In line with these observations, Wnt/β-catenin signaling and 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3), the active vitamin D metabolite, usually have opposite effects on cancer cell proliferation and phenotype. In recent years, an increasing number of studies performed in a variety of cancer types have revealed a complex crosstalk between Wnt/β-catenin signaling and 1,25(OH)2D3. Here we review the mechanisms by which 1,25(OH)2D3 inhibits Wnt/β-catenin signaling and, conversely, how the activated Wnt/β-catenin pathway may abrogate vitamin D action. The available data suggest that interaction between Wnt/β-catenin signaling and the vitamin D system is at the crossroads in solid cancers and may have therapeutic applications. View Full-Text
Keywords: wnt; β-catenin; vitamin D; cancer; colon cancer wnt; β-catenin; vitamin D; cancer; colon cancer
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MDPI and ACS Style

González-Sancho, J.M.; Larriba, M.J.; Muñoz, A. Wnt and Vitamin D at the Crossroads in Solid Cancer. Cancers 2020, 12, 3434. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12113434

AMA Style

González-Sancho JM, Larriba MJ, Muñoz A. Wnt and Vitamin D at the Crossroads in Solid Cancer. Cancers. 2020; 12(11):3434. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12113434

Chicago/Turabian Style

González-Sancho, José M.; Larriba, María J.; Muñoz, Alberto. 2020. "Wnt and Vitamin D at the Crossroads in Solid Cancer" Cancers 12, no. 11: 3434. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12113434

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