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Non-Invasive Diagnostic System Based on Light for Detecting Early-Stage Oral Cancer and High-Risk Precancerous Lesions—Potential for Dentistry

Department of Oral Medicine and Stomatology, School of Dental Medicine, Tsurumi University, 2-1-3 Tsurumi, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama City, Kanagawa 230-8501, Japan
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Cancers 2020, 12(11), 3185; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12113185
Received: 29 August 2020 / Revised: 22 October 2020 / Accepted: 26 October 2020 / Published: 29 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-Invasive Early Detection of Cancers)
The early detection of oral cancer and oral potentially malignant disorders can facilitate minimum intervention and subsequent improvements in prognosis and quality of life after treatment. Recently, several non-invasive adjunctive fluorescence-based detection systems have improved the accuracy of detection and diagnosis of oral cancer and oral potentially malignant disorders. This article summarizes current knowledge about fluorescence-based diagnostic methods and discusses their benefits and drawbacks from a clinical viewpoint.
Oral health promotion and examinations have contributed to the early detection of oral cancer and oral potentially malignant disorders, leading to the adaptation of minimally invasive therapies and subsequent improvements in the prognosis/maintenance of the quality of life after treatments. However, the accurate detection of early-stage oral cancer and oral epithelial dysplasia is particularly difficult for conventional oral examinations because these lesions sometimes resemble benign lesions or healthy oral mucosa tissues. Although oral biopsy has been considered the gold standard for accurate diagnosis, it is deemed invasive for patients. For this reason, most clinicians are looking forward to the development of non-invasive diagnostic technologies to detect and distinguish between cancerous and benign lesions. To date, several non-invasive adjunctive fluorescence-based detection systems have improved the accuracy of the detection and diagnosis of oral mucosal lesions. Autofluorescence-based systems can detect lesions as a loss of autofluorescence through irradiation with blue-violet lights. Photodynamic diagnosis using 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA-PDD) shows the presence of very early oral cancers and oral epithelial dysplasia as a red fluorescent area. In this article, currently used fluorescence-based diagnostic methods are introduced and discussed from a clinical point of view. View Full-Text
Keywords: chemiluminescence; autofluorescence; photodynamic diagnosis (PDD); oral cancer; oral epithelial dysplasia (OED); oral potentially malignancy disorders (OPMDs); protoporphyrin IX; fluorescence chemiluminescence; autofluorescence; photodynamic diagnosis (PDD); oral cancer; oral epithelial dysplasia (OED); oral potentially malignancy disorders (OPMDs); protoporphyrin IX; fluorescence
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MDPI and ACS Style

Tatehara, S.; Satomura, K. Non-Invasive Diagnostic System Based on Light for Detecting Early-Stage Oral Cancer and High-Risk Precancerous Lesions—Potential for Dentistry. Cancers 2020, 12, 3185. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12113185

AMA Style

Tatehara S, Satomura K. Non-Invasive Diagnostic System Based on Light for Detecting Early-Stage Oral Cancer and High-Risk Precancerous Lesions—Potential for Dentistry. Cancers. 2020; 12(11):3185. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12113185

Chicago/Turabian Style

Tatehara, Seiko; Satomura, Kazuhito. 2020. "Non-Invasive Diagnostic System Based on Light for Detecting Early-Stage Oral Cancer and High-Risk Precancerous Lesions—Potential for Dentistry" Cancers 12, no. 11: 3185. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12113185

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