Next Article in Journal
The Diverse Contributions of Fucose Linkages in Cancer
Next Article in Special Issue
Triple-Negative Breast Cancer: Current Understanding and Future Therapeutic Breakthrough Targeting Cancer Stemness
Previous Article in Journal
Trends in Overall Survival and Treatment Patterns in Two Large Population-Based Cohorts of Patients with Breast and Colorectal Cancer
Previous Article in Special Issue
SETDB-1: A Potential Epigenetic Regulator in Breast Cancer Metastasis
Open AccessFeature PaperReview

Role of the Microenvironment in Regulating Normal and Cancer Stem Cell Activity: Implications for Breast Cancer Progression and Therapy Response

1
Department of Immunology, Max Rady Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB R3E 0T5, Canada
2
Research Institute in Oncology and Hematology, CancerCare Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB R3E 0V9, Canada
3
London Regional Cancer Program, London Health Science Centre, London, ON N6A 5W9, Canada
4
Department of Anatomy & Cell Biology and Oncology, Western University, London, ON N6A 3K7, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Cancers 2019, 11(9), 1240; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11091240
Received: 26 July 2019 / Revised: 16 August 2019 / Accepted: 19 August 2019 / Published: 24 August 2019
The epithelial cells in an adult woman’s breast tissue are continuously replaced throughout their reproductive life during pregnancy and estrus cycles. Such extensive epithelial cell turnover is governed by the primitive mammary stem cells (MaSCs) that proliferate and differentiate into bipotential and lineage-restricted progenitors that ultimately generate the mature breast epithelial cells. These cellular processes are orchestrated by tightly-regulated paracrine signals and crosstalk between breast epithelial cells and their tissue microenvironment. However, current evidence suggests that alterations to the communication between MaSCs, epithelial progenitors and their microenvironment plays an important role in breast carcinogenesis. In this article, we review the current knowledge regarding the role of the breast tissue microenvironment in regulating the special functions of normal and cancer stem cells. Understanding the crosstalk between MaSCs and their microenvironment will provide new insights into how an altered breast tissue microenvironment could contribute to breast cancer development, progression and therapy response and the implications of this for the development of novel therapeutic strategies to target cancer stem cells. View Full-Text
Keywords: microenvironment; mammary stem cells; breast cancer stem cells; hypoxia; immune cells; cytokines microenvironment; mammary stem cells; breast cancer stem cells; hypoxia; immune cells; cytokines
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Bhat, V.; Allan, A.L.; Raouf, A. Role of the Microenvironment in Regulating Normal and Cancer Stem Cell Activity: Implications for Breast Cancer Progression and Therapy Response. Cancers 2019, 11, 1240.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop