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Immune Resistance and EGFR Antagonists in Colorectal Cancer

U.O.C. Medical Oncology, Ospedali Riuniti, Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria, 251 Foggia, Italy
Pathology Unit, Mater Salutis Hospital AULSS9, “Scaligera”, 37122 Verona, Italy
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Complutense University Madrid, 28040 Madrid, Spain
Health Research Institute of the Hospital Clínico San Carlos (IdISSC), 28040 Madrid, Spain
Department of Sciences and Technologies, University of Sannio, 82100 Benevento, Italy
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Cancers 2019, 11(8), 1089;
Received: 9 July 2019 / Revised: 26 July 2019 / Accepted: 28 July 2019 / Published: 31 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Signaling in Cancer)
Targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) either alone or in combination with chemotherapy in patients with RAS wild type metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) has revolutionized the treatment of CRC, but with less results than initially envisaged. In recent years, the discovery of multiple pathways leading to the escape from anti-EGFR therapy has revealed an enormous complexity and heterogeneity of human CRC due to the intrinsic genomic instability and immune/cancer cell interaction. Therefore, understanding the mechanistic basis of acquired resistance to targeted therapies represents a major challenge to improve the clinical outcomes of patients with CRC. The latest findings strongly suggest that complex molecular alterations coupled with changes of the immune tumor microenvironment may substantially contribute to the clinical efficacy of EGFR antagonist. In this review, we discuss the most recent findings that contribute to both primary and acquired anti-EGFR therapy resistance. In addition, we analyze how strategies aiming to enhance the favorable effects in the tumor microenvironment may contribute to overcome resistance to EGFR therapies. View Full-Text
Keywords: colorectal cancer; EGFR; resistance; targeted therapies; immune microenvironment colorectal cancer; EGFR; resistance; targeted therapies; immune microenvironment
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MDPI and ACS Style

Giordano, G.; Remo, A.; Porras, A.; Pancione, M. Immune Resistance and EGFR Antagonists in Colorectal Cancer. Cancers 2019, 11, 1089.

AMA Style

Giordano G, Remo A, Porras A, Pancione M. Immune Resistance and EGFR Antagonists in Colorectal Cancer. Cancers. 2019; 11(8):1089.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Giordano, Guido, Andrea Remo, Almudena Porras, and Massimo Pancione. 2019. "Immune Resistance and EGFR Antagonists in Colorectal Cancer" Cancers 11, no. 8: 1089.

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