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PTEN Hamartoma Tumor Syndrome: A Clinical Overview
Open AccessArticle

Phenotype-Driven Diagnostic of PTEN Hamartoma Tumor Syndrome: Macrocephaly, But Neither Height nor Weight Development, Is the Important Trait in Children

Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetology Division, Children’s Hospital, University of Bonn, Adenauerallee 119, 53113 Bonn, Germany
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Cancers 2019, 11(7), 975; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11070975
Received: 7 May 2019 / Revised: 4 July 2019 / Accepted: 8 July 2019 / Published: 11 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue PTEN: A Multifaceted Tumor Suppressor)
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Abstract

PTEN hamartoma tumor syndrome (PHTS) encompasses different syndromic disorders which are associated with autosomal-dominant mutations of the tumor suppressor gene PTEN. Patients are at high risk to develop benign and malignant tumors. Macrocephaly is a diagnostic feature, but there is a paucity of data on auxological development during childhood. Growth charts for height, weight and head circumference for PHTS do not exist yet. In this study, patient data for height, weight and head circumferences (HC) were collected from repeated medical exams or prevention check-up visits starting at birth. Growth charts were generated and compared to German reference data. Standard deviation scores (SDS) of HC, height and body mass index (BMI) were calculated. We included 23 pediatric patients (8 female, 15 male) with molecular proven PTEN gene mutation. Most male patients already demonstrated macrocephaly at birth (73%), whereas only one female patient had documented congenital macrocephaly. By the age of two years all patients exhibited a head circumference above the 97th percentile. Stratified for different age groups the median HC-SDSs were between +3.3 and +5.5 in male patients and between +2.9 and +4.1 in female patients. Height, weight and BMI measurements for both sexes were mostly within the normal range. We conclude that macrocephaly, but not height, weight or BMI, is useful in the identification of PHTS patients. The increased HC in PHTS patients develops early in life and is more pronounced in males than in females, which might explain the finding of a higher percentage of male PHTS patients diagnosed during childhood. View Full-Text
Keywords: PTEN; head circumference; PHTS; children PTEN; head circumference; PHTS; children
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Plamper, M.; Gohlke, B.; Schreiner, F.; Woelfle, J. Phenotype-Driven Diagnostic of PTEN Hamartoma Tumor Syndrome: Macrocephaly, But Neither Height nor Weight Development, Is the Important Trait in Children. Cancers 2019, 11, 975.

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