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Cancers 2019, 11(4), 459; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11040459

The Human Microbiota and Prostate Cancer: Friend or Foe?

1
Division of Oncology, S. Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, 40138 Bologna, Italy
2
Macerata Hospital, 62100 Macerata, Italy
3
Section of Pathological Anatomy, Polytechnic University of the Marche Region, School of Medicine, United Hospitals, 60126 Ancona, Italy
4
Department of Surgery, Cordoba University Medical School, 14004 Cordoba, Spain
5
Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA
6
Oncology Unit, Department of Experimental, Diagnostic and Specialty Medicine, Sant’Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, University of Bologna, 40138 Bologna, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Received: 28 February 2019 / Revised: 21 March 2019 / Accepted: 26 March 2019 / Published: 31 March 2019
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Abstract

The human microbiome is gaining increasing attention in the medical community, as knowledge on its role not only in health but also in disease development and response to therapies is expanding. Furthermore, the connection between the microbiota and cancer, especially the link between the gut microbiota and gastrointestinal tumors, is becoming clearer. The interaction between the microbiota and the response to chemotherapies and, more recently, to immunotherapy has been widely studied, and a connection between a peculiar type of microbiota and a better response to these therapies and a different incidence in toxicities has been hypothesized. As knowledge on the gut microbiota increases, interest in the residing microbial population in other systems of our body is also increasing. Consequently, the urinary microbiota is under evaluation for its possible implications in genitourinary diseases, including cancer. Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in the male population; thus, research regarding its etiology and possible factors correlated to disease progression or the response to specific therapies is thriving. This review has the purpose to recollect the current knowledge on the relationship between the human microbiota and prostate cancer. View Full-Text
Keywords: microbiota; microbiome; prostate cancer; genitourinary cancers microbiota; microbiome; prostate cancer; genitourinary cancers
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Massari, F.; Mollica, V.; Di Nunno, V.; Gatto, L.; Santoni, M.; Scarpelli, M.; Cimadamore, A.; Lopez-Beltran, A.; Cheng, L.; Battelli, N.; Montironi, R.; Brandi, G. The Human Microbiota and Prostate Cancer: Friend or Foe? Cancers 2019, 11, 459.

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