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Cancers 2019, 11(3), 338; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11030338

Chemotherapy Resistance Explained through Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Dependent Signaling

1
,
2,3,4,*
and
1,*
1
College of Pharmacy, Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 52828, Gyeongnam, Korea
2
Department of Pathology, College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Seoul 03722, Korea
3
Department of Pathology, Ilsan Paik Hospital, Inje University, Goyang 10381, Gyeonggi-do, Korea
4
Department of Pathology, National Cancer Center, Goyang 10408, Gyeonggi-do, Korea
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 February 2019 / Revised: 1 March 2019 / Accepted: 1 March 2019 / Published: 8 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Apoptosis in Cancer)
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Abstract

Cancers cells have the ability to develop chemotherapy resistance, which is a persistent problem during cancer treatment. Chemotherapy resistance develops through different molecular mechanisms, which lead to modification of the cancer cells signals needed for cellular proliferation or for stimulating an immune response. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an important organelle involved in protein quality control, by promoting the correct folding of protein and ER-mediated degradation of unfolded or misfolded protein, namely, ER-associated degradation. Disturbances of the normal ER functions causes an accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins in the ER lumen, resulting in a condition called “ER stress (ERS).” ERS triggers the unfolded protein response (UPR)—also called the ERS response (ERSR)—to restore homeostasis or activate cell death. Although the ERSR is one emerging potential target for chemotherapeutics to treat cancer, it is also critical for chemotherapeutics resistance, as well. However, the detailed molecular mechanism of the relationship between the ERSR and tumor survival or drug resistance remains to be fully understood. In this review, we aim to describe the most vital molecular mechanism of the relationship between the ERSR and chemotherapy resistance. Moreover, the review also discusses the molecular mechanism of ER stress-mediated apoptosis on cancer treatments. View Full-Text
Keywords: cancer; chemotherapy resistance; endoplasmic reticulum; endoplasmic reticulum stress response cancer; chemotherapy resistance; endoplasmic reticulum; endoplasmic reticulum stress response
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Bahar, E.; Kim, J.-Y.; Yoon, H. Chemotherapy Resistance Explained through Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Dependent Signaling. Cancers 2019, 11, 338.

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