(1) Background: Novel methods are required for analysing post-translational modifications of protein phosphorylation by visualizing biochemical landscapes of proteins in human normal and cancerous tissues and cells. (2) Methods: A label-free Raman method is presented for detecting spectral changes that arise in proteins due to phosphorylation in the tissue of human breasts, small intestines, and brain tumours, as well as in the normal human astrocytes and primary glioblastoma U-87 MG cell lines. Raman spectroscopy and Raman imaging are effective tools for monitoring and analysing the vibrations of functional groups involved in aberrant phosphorylation in cancer without any phosphorecognition of tag molecules. (3) Results: Our results based on 35 fresh human cancer and normal tissues prove that the aberrant tyrosine phosphorylation monitored by the unique spectral signatures of Raman vibrations is a universal characteristic in the metabolic regulation in different types of cancers. Overexpressed tyrosine phosphorylation in the human breast, small intestine and brain tissues and in the human primary glioblastoma U-87 MG cell line was monitored by using Raman biomarkers. (4) We showed that the bands at 1586 cm−1
and 829 cm−1
, corresponding to phosphorylated tyrosine, play a pivotal role as a Raman biomarker of the phosphorylation status in aggressive cancers. We found that the best Raman biomarker of phosphorylation is the 1586/829 ratio showing the statistical significance at p
Values of ≤ 0.05. (5) Conclusions: Raman spectroscopy and imaging have the potential to be used as screening functional assays to detect phosphorylated target proteins and will help researchers to understand the role of phosphorylation in cellular processes and cancer progression. The abnormal and excessive high level of tyrosine phosphorylation in cancer samples compared with normal samples was found in the cancerous human tissue of breasts, small intestines and brain tumours, as well as in the mitochondria and lipid droplets of the glioblastoma U-87 MG cell line. Detailed insights are presented into the intracellular oncogenic metabolic pathways mediated by phosphorylated tyrosine.
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