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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle

Recurrent or Refractory High-Grade Gliomas Treated by Convection-Enhanced Delivery of a TGFβ2-Targeting RNA Therapeutic: A Post-Hoc Analysis with Long-Term Follow-Up

Immuno-Oncology Program, Oncotelic Inc., Agoura Hills, CA 91301, USA
Department of Immuno-Oncology, Ares Pharmaceuticals, St. Paul, MN 55110, USA
Department of Biology, Bioinformatics Program, Gustavus Adolphus College, St. Peter, MN 56082, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Cancers 2019, 11(12), 1892;
Received: 4 November 2019 / Revised: 21 November 2019 / Accepted: 25 November 2019 / Published: 28 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Personalized Medicine: Recent Progress in Cancer Therapy)
Background. OT101 is a first-in-class RNA therapeutic designed to abrogate the immunosuppressive actions of transforming growth factor beta 2 (TGFβ2). Here, we report our post-hoc analysis of the single-agent activity of OT101 in adult patients with recurrent and/or refractory (R/R) high-grade gliomas. Methods. In a Phase 2 clinical trial (, NCT00431561), OT101 was administered to 89 R/R high-grade glioma (HGG) (anaplastic astrocytoma/AA: 27; glioblastoma multiforme/GBM: 62) patients with an intratumoral catheter using a convection enhanced delivery (CED) system. Seventy-seven patients (efficacy population; GBM: 51; AA: 26) received at least the intended minimum number of four OT101 treatment cycles. Response determinations were based on central review of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans according to the McDonald criteria. Standard statistical methods were applied for the analysis of data. Findings. Nineteen patients had a complete response (CR) or partial response (PR) following a slow but robust size reduction of their target lesions (median time for 90% reduction of the baseline tumor volume = 11.7 months, range: 4.9–57.7 months). The mean log reduction of the tumor volume was 2.2 ± 0.4 (median = 1.4: range: 0.4–4.5) logs. In addition, seven patients had a stable disease (SD) lasting ≥6 months. For the combined group of 26 AA/GBM patients with favorable responses, the median progression-free survival (PFS) of 1109 days and overall survival (OS) of 1280 days were significantly better than the median PFS (p < 0.00001) and OS (p < 0.00001) of the non-responders among the 89 patients or the 77-patient efficacy population. Conclusion. Intratumorally administered OT101 exhibits clinically meaningful single-agent activity and induces durable CR/PR/SD in R/R HGG patients. View Full-Text
Keywords: RNA therapeutic; glioma; immuno-oncology RNA therapeutic; glioma; immuno-oncology
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Uckun, F.M.; Qazi, S.; Hwang, L.; Trieu, V.N. Recurrent or Refractory High-Grade Gliomas Treated by Convection-Enhanced Delivery of a TGFβ2-Targeting RNA Therapeutic: A Post-Hoc Analysis with Long-Term Follow-Up. Cancers 2019, 11, 1892.

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