BRG1, an active subunit of the SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complex, enables the EP300-dependent transcription of proliferation and DNA repair genes from their E2F/CpG-driven promoters in breast cancer cells. In the current study, we show that BRG1–EP300 complexes are accompanied by poly-ADP-ribose polymerase 1 (PARP1), which emerges as the functional component of the promoter-bound multiprotein units that are capable of controlling gene expression. This enzyme is co-distributed with BRG1 at highly acetylated promoters of genes such as CDK4
, which are responsible for cancer cell growth and the removal of DNA damage. ADP-ribosylation is necessary to maintain active transcription, since it ensures an open chromatin structure that allows high acetylation and low histone density. PARP1-mediated modification of BRG1 and EP300 does not affect the association of enzymes with gene promoters; however, it does activate EP300, which acetylates nucleosomes, leading to their eviction by BRG1, thus allowing mRNA synthesis. Although PARP1 was found at BRG1 positive/H3K27ac negative promoters of highly expressed genes in a transformed breast cancer cell line, its transcriptional activity was limited to genes simultaneously controlled by BRG1 and EP300, indicating that the ADP-ribosylation of EP300 plays a dominant role in the regulation of BRG1–EP300-driven transcription. In conclusion, PARP1 directs the transcription of some proliferation and DNA repair genes in breast cancer cells by the ADP-ribosylation of EP300, thereby causing its activation and marking nucleosomes for displacement by BRG1. PARP1 in rapidly dividing cells facilitates the expression of genes that confer a cancer cell phenotype. Our study shows a new mechanism that links PARP1 with the removal of DNA damage in breast cancer cells via the regulation of BRG1–EP300-dependent transcription of genes involved in DNA repair pathways.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited