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Animal Models of Hepatocellular Carcinoma: The Role of Immune System and Tumor Microenvironment

by Zuzana Macek Jilkova 1,2,3,*, Keerthi Kurma 1,2 and Thomas Decaens 1,2,3,*
1
Université Grenoble Alpes, CS 10217, 38043 Grenoble, France
2
Institute for Advanced Biosciences, Research Center UGA/Inserm U 1209/CNRS 5309, 38043 Grenoble, France
3
Clinique Universitaire d’Hépato-gastroentérologie, Pôle Digidune, CHU Grenoble Alpes, CS 10217, 38043 Grenoble, France
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Cancers 2019, 11(10), 1487; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11101487
Received: 26 August 2019 / Revised: 28 September 2019 / Accepted: 30 September 2019 / Published: 2 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Models of Experimental Liver Cancer)
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common type of liver cancer in adults and has one of the highest mortality rates of solid cancers. Ninety percent of HCCs are associated with liver fibrosis or cirrhosis developed from chronic liver injuries. The immune system of the liver contributes to the severity of the necrotic-inflammatory tissue damage, the establishment of fibrosis and cirrhosis, and the disease progression towards HCC. Immunotherapies have emerged as an exciting strategy for HCC treatment, but their effect is limited, and an extensive translation research is urgently needed to enhance anti-tumor efficacy and clinical success. Establishing HCC animal models that are analogous to human disease settings, i.e., mimicking the tumor microenvironment of HCC, is extremely challenging. Hence, this review discusses different animal models of HCC by summarizing their advantages and their limits with a specific focus on the role of the immune system and tumor microenvironment. View Full-Text
Keywords: animal model; hepatocellular carcinoma; cancer; immune system; tumor microenvironment animal model; hepatocellular carcinoma; cancer; immune system; tumor microenvironment
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Macek Jilkova, Z.; Kurma, K.; Decaens, T. Animal Models of Hepatocellular Carcinoma: The Role of Immune System and Tumor Microenvironment. Cancers 2019, 11, 1487.

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