Next Article in Journal
The Opposing Contribution of SMS1 and SMS2 to Glioma Progression and Their Value in the Therapeutic Response to 2OHOA
Next Article in Special Issue
Connexins and Integrins in Exosomes
Previous Article in Journal
Longitudinal Monitoring of Alpha-Fetoprotein by Dried Blood Spot for Hepatoblastoma Screening in Beckwith–Wiedemann Syndrome
Previous Article in Special Issue
Gap Junction Intercellular Communication Positively Regulates Cisplatin Toxicity by Inducing DNA Damage through Bystander Signaling
Article Menu
Issue 1 (January) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessConcept Paper
Cancers 2019, 11(1), 87; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11010087

Cancer Prevention and Therapy of Two Types of Gap Junctional Intercellular Communication–Deficient “Cancer Stem Cell”

Department Pediatrics & Human Development, College of Human Medicine, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA
Received: 27 November 2018 / Revised: 23 December 2018 / Accepted: 8 January 2019 / Published: 14 January 2019
Full-Text   |   PDF [847 KB, uploaded 14 January 2019]   |  
  |   Review Reports

Abstract

Early observations showed a lack of growth control and terminal differentiation with a lack of gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC). Subsequent observations showed that epigenetic tumor promoters and activated oncogenes, which block gap junction function, provide insights into the multi-stage, multi-mechanism carcinogenic process. With the isolation of embryonic induced pluri-potent stem cells and organ-specific adult stem cells, gap junctions were linked to early development. While tumors and tumor cell lines are a heterogeneous mixture of “cancer stem cells” and “cancer non-stem cells”, the cancer stem cells seem to be of two types, namely, they express (a) no connexin genes or (b) connexin genes, but do not have functional GJIC. These observations suggest that these “cancer stem cells” originate from normal adult stem cells or from the de-differentiation or re-programming of somatic differentiated cells. This “Concept Paper” provides a hypothesis that “cancer stem cells” either originate from (a) organ-specific adult stem cells before the expression of the connexin genes or (b) organ-specific adult stem cells that just express gap junction genes but that the connexin proteins are rendered dysfunctional by activated oncogenes. Therefore, cancer prevention and therapeutic strategies must account for these two different types of “cancer stem cell”. View Full-Text
Keywords: connexins; gap junctions; stem cells; oncogenes; cancer stem cells connexins; gap junctions; stem cells; oncogenes; cancer stem cells
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Trosko, J.E. Cancer Prevention and Therapy of Two Types of Gap Junctional Intercellular Communication–Deficient “Cancer Stem Cell”. Cancers 2019, 11, 87.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Cancers EISSN 2072-6694 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top