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Cancers 2019, 11(1), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11010029

NK Cell-Based Immunotherapy in Cancer Metastasis

1
Department of Functional Biology, Immunology, University of Oviedo, 33006 Oviedo, Spain
2
Instituto Universitario de Oncología del Principado de Asturias, IUOPA, 33006 Oviedo, Spain
3
Instituto de Investigación Biosanitaria del Principado de Asturias (IISPA), 33011 Oviedo, Spain
4
Department of Hematology, Hospital Universitario Central de Asturias (HUCA), 33011 Oviedo, Spain
5
UOC Immunologia, Ospedale Policlinico San Martino Genova, 16132 Genoa, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally.
Received: 15 November 2018 / Revised: 11 December 2018 / Accepted: 20 December 2018 / Published: 28 December 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Killer Cells and Cancer Therapy)
Full-Text   |   PDF [655 KB, uploaded 28 December 2018]   |  

Abstract

Metastasis represents the leading cause of cancer-related death mainly owing to the limited efficacy of current anticancer therapies on advanced malignancies. Although immunotherapy is rendering promising results in the treatment of cancer, many adverse events and factors hampering therapeutic efficacy, especially in solid tumors and metastases, still need to be solved. Moreover, immunotherapeutic strategies have mainly focused on modulating the activity of T cells, while Natural Killer (NK) cells have only recently been taken into consideration. NK cells represent an attractive target for cancer immunotherapy owing to their innate capacity to eliminate malignant tumors in a non-Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) and non-tumor antigen-restricted manner. In this review, we analyze the mechanisms and efficacy of NK cells in the control of metastasis and we detail the immunosubversive strategies developed by metastatic cells to evade NK cell-mediated immunosurveillance. We also share current and cutting-edge clinical approaches aimed at unleashing the full anti-metastatic potential of NK cells, including the adoptive transfer of NK cells, boosting of NK cell activity, redirecting NK cell activity against metastatic cells and the release of evasion mechanisms dampening NK cell immunosurveillance. View Full-Text
Keywords: cancer; metastasis; epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT); therapy; natural killer cell; checkpoint; chimeric antigen receptor (CAR); adoptive transfer; cytokines; antibodies cancer; metastasis; epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT); therapy; natural killer cell; checkpoint; chimeric antigen receptor (CAR); adoptive transfer; cytokines; antibodies
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Lorenzo-Herrero, S.; López-Soto, A.; Sordo-Bahamonde, C.; Gonzalez-Rodriguez, A.P.; Vitale, M.; Gonzalez, S. NK Cell-Based Immunotherapy in Cancer Metastasis. Cancers 2019, 11, 29.

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